Lian (Harvard GSD M.Arch.I)

I graduated in 2013, but still live-blog here once in a while.

  • Live Blog - Toyo Ito, "What Was Metabolism? Reflections on the Life of Kiyonori Kikutake"

    Hi Archinect,

    We're in full, full Piper tonight for Toyo Ito's lecture. (You can watch the full video at the GSD's YouTube Channel.)

    From the GSD website:

    The Metabolist Movement in the 1960s established the foundation from which contemporary architecture in Japan has emerged up to the present. Even today, the visionary architectural and urban projects created by the leading Metabolist Kiyonori Kikutake continue to shine brightly, according to Toyo Ito. In this lecture, he will consider Metabolism’s significance today through his rereading of Kikutake's works of that time.

    Toyo Ito was born in Seoul; after graduating from the University of Tokyo, Department of Architecture, he worked at Kiyonori Kikutake Architects and Associates before establishing his own office, under the name Urban Robot, in 1971. With Toyo Ito & Associates, Architects since 1979, Ito has completed many notable projects, including the widely published Sendai Mediatheque (2000), Tower of Winds in Yokohama (1986), Tama Art University Library (2007), and Toyo Ito Museum of Architecture (2011). "Ripples," a metal street furniture piece, won the Compasso D'Oro, the prestigious Italian furniture prize, in 2004. Toyo Ito's many awards received for architecture include the Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement, at the 2002 Venice Architecture Biennial, and the Golden Lion for Best Pavilion, for the Japanese Pavilion at Venice in 2012.

    6:30: The hobs are nobbing, and students are crowding the aisles.

    6:38: Dean Mostafavi calls things to order. "It was some years ago that I asked Ito-San a favor; to help provide an introduction to Kikutake-San." It was a special day when they met, MM reminisces, and he comments on Kikutake-San's great smile and humor.

    6:40: Kikutake-San's widow is here, and MM asks her to say a few words. After bowing deeply, she thanks MM and the school for hosting the exhibition and lecture; then begins to tell us about her late husband's gentle spirit. "He would find an autumn leaf, and take it home, to sketch it. If there was the moon was out, he would be inspired by that. ...That was the gentle side of him, but maybe later Ito-San can tell you that in the office situation, he was very, very strict. There was yelling and throwing of things, and [everyone would have to] work for many days without sleep." She mentions, as has MM, that it's fitting that Toyo Ito deliver these remarks about KK's work, as KK admired Ito's work greatly, and vice versa. "Mr. Ito has spoken very kindly, and honestly, about my husband's work."

    6:47: MM is talking about the Japan lecture series from last year, and about the Tokyo studio which took place last year with Toyo Ito to work on issues related to the recovery from the tsunami.

    About Toyo Ito, MM says: His fascination with our contemporary culture, especially the impact of technology on our bodies and hence our experience of the environment...[deals powerfully with] our current condition." ...Unlike the output of many other successful architects, which whether deliberately or not relies on a stylistic continuity, Ito treats each project distinctly. For Ito, modern man is a Tarzan...body and architecture are in a constant state of flux in their negotiation with the modern city. Ito's work. Ken Tadashi Oshima will be translating.

    6:52: TI: "...It is a great honor to be speaking here about my teacher, Kikutake-San."

    The image that MM showed [above, with page number 412 in the corner] was taken about a year before his death (which was just under one year ago); we had hoped to have the exhibition while KK was still alive.

    This image was in my fourth year of school; I spent a month as an intern in KK's office in the open-desk system. The Olympics was the next year. One year into working in KK's office [above]; "I was the slimmest I was ever, 15kg less than now."

    6:56: In introducing the legacy of modern architecture in Japan, we can see the influence of Le Corbusier on this group. Maekawa worked for Corb; Tange worked for Maekawa. Maki, Isozaki, and Kurokawa all worked in Tange's office or in his university laboratory. I worked in the Kikutake office between 1965 and 1969. Kazuyo Sejima, in turn, worked my office...

    6:59: Kenzo Tange was really busy at the time for the Olympics, so he only came to the university one or two times that year. So his impression of Tange is as a dandy, with wide-bottom pants and a bow-tie.

    When TI was a third year, this magazine came out and was a big inspiration for him.

    7:01: Now I'd like to make a comparison between KK and Tange. Here's Tange's own house in the outlying areas of Tokyo. In comparison, KK's house is dynamic and bold, and has a raw energy. Pilotis, wall planes. Here we see the main space suspended on pilotis, and the characteristic of KK's work is that it's raised up high, floating.

    We can see the difference, between Tange, the sophistication of the Katsura Villa, as contrasted with the way KK looked towards the rusticity of Japanese traditional houses. KK's influence on TI is perhaps that [TI] now "sees sophistication as the devil." We can also see the tremendous influence from China that is borrowed and refined.

    One might see this as impoverished or rural, but from the prospective of the farmhouse (it was central in the control and administration of the land.)

    7:08: A large difference between KT's plan for Tokyo Bay and KK's Marine City. KT's is a really urban scheme, the literal extension of Tokyo into Tokyo Bay. In the Marine City, it is a city, but around the water, almost a garden city.

    Here we see Tange's Kagawa prefectural Government building, which TI admires most. In contrast, KK's plan for the Kyoto International Conference center, is a path towards the shrine. On the left, the refined; on the right, the dynamic.

    KO corrects the English translation on this slide; it's actually the opposite:

    Columns set off space, floor defines space.

    It's about the space that emerges from around a column. In KK's work, the floor-platform is often elevated, and defines that space in a particular, lofty way.

    This shrine is in Ito-San's hometown, with a revered column rising up. Note the four pillars rising up in this old drawing (in yellow). Sacred space is defined by these pillars.

    The column is replaced every seven years. These people almost live for this festival every seven years.

    This is a prime example of the floor plane defining its space. Both KK and TI very much admire this work.

    7:16: Sky House: this is the clearest example of those four pillars raising up a space towards the sky.

    We see here [above left] the square plan with a half inside, half outside interstitial space. As an expression of the metabolist thinking, you can see the primary living space, unchanging, while the kitchen and bathroom change quite a lot over time.

    The proportions of the space are key.

    During this period, Marcel Breuer was influential, especially in the use of horizontal louvers, but here you can see vertical louvers, as in a farmhouse.

    The children's room, shown above, hangs from the main mass. KK considered it a failure. (I didn't catch why.) Here is a clear example of KK building on industrialized technology to create this hanging "movenett."

    What TI finds profoundly interesting is that while this was the period of the perfection of mass industrialization, KK goes to the rural, agrarian ideal of the farmhouse. Rather than pure theory it's the power of the space.

    Here's the Izumo administration building. A few years ago, TI visited and felt it was amazing that it was built half a century ago but even today has an incredible power. The precast panels express rice before it's harvested--the louvers resemble a rack where rice strands are cut and dried, as below:

    Under construction--you can see the video of this in the lobby, a video which TI saw today for the first time. A 40m span, impressive.

    Here we see the clarity of the overall composition, and the refinement of the individual pieces.

    In the shadow space [in the above image, highlighted by laser-pointer] is glass that was imported from France. This is the louvered wall where you'd see the water drip down, almost like a waterfall. Kikutake-San would always talk about the the arrangement of the stones; it wasn't a mechanical composition, but a human one, felt in the assembly of the elements.

    This iron gate, designed by a graphic designer (Oshi?), depicts clouds.

    This scheme happened when TI was in his third year of college, and was truly influential. Quite a shock, but unfortunately not realized.

    In this plan, we see the building is lifted up, as in the sky house; that distance to the ground and the circulation was probably a reason why this scheme did not win. But when you look at the drawings on display (in the exhibition), especially the detailed section, it's truly remarkable. You can see KK's passion in these drawings that are almost like working drawings, despite it just being a competition. And it recalled traditional roof bracketry.

    This is a small scale hot spring area. It is a simple yet complicated composition that faces the ocean. There's a shinto gate-like structure, and floors above that define the space, with hanging spaces below, together with the elevator and stair shafts beside.

    In this great model you can see that principle of the columns activating the space and the floors defining it.

    Compare with this very strong Shinto gate that is supported by sub columns.

    TI was able to see this just as it was completed, at the time of the Tokyo Olympics.

    Pacific Hotel Chigasaki. It goes without saying that this was somewhat of a realization of the Marine City.

    We see the metabolist thinking in the plan, with the sloping roof and changeable bathroom units on the exterior.

    This is a really memorable experience for TI when he was in his fourth year of college doing his open-desk internship. This was a time when the project was just starting up and KK asked TI to research the area. He did a month of research and presented the results on the final day. It's at that time when he asked to work for the KK office and got a "yes" answer.

    Going to the office to work, he was quite shocked to see the actual design [below]. It's difficult to explain what this design is all about. We see this accordion-like roof, but more than this, there is a fixed ground plane and covering that floats above. ...At this point he began to really understand that bodily experience of the space, that tremendous intuitive sense of design.

    Synthesizing the lessons from KK:

    We can see his particular sensibilities in going counter to modernism in many ways, in its anti-symbolic notions of modernism.

    This is not the place to fully explain this, you can see those principles of the mesh columns forming that space, and the platforms of the floor forming that distinctive plane.

    Here we see the New College of Social Sciences in Taiwan that will be completed before the end of the year. Plant-like columns.

    This is a new mediatheque that we will start constructing this year, that is two levels. Here we see multiple centers; not columns, but a whirlpool-like energy.

    Here we see the Taichung Metropolitan Opera House that Dean Mostafavi was a juror for. This might be the most un-KK-like scheme we've seen today. Here the column and floor and wall have all been melted into one. It's been under construction for 6 years and hopefully will be completed within another two.

    7:54: To end I'd like to talk about the "Home-for-all" in Rikuzentakata. This project emerges from a group of five architects that came together to do work for the relief in the disaster. Separate from that group, TI worked with three young architects. In the back of the mountain, you see the site.

    It is a small house for people who lost their houses to come, eat, and talk. Here we see the three 40-something architects: Fujimoto, Inui, and Hirata. It was a real struggle to decide what direction to go in, because of the many ideas [below].

    Here we see the woman who was the catalyst in bringing everyone together [below]. She herself lost her home but put that energy into bringing everyone together. Through her efforts, we started to see what the direction of the 'home-for-all' would be.

    Here see these colorful floats that emerged in this gray context, enlivening the space for the annual Tanabata festival, with towers that come up, enlivening all the people.

    In contrast to the horizontality, we see the vertical columns, which are cedar trees that were damaged in the tsunami, that are reused. With these nineteen columns brought back to life, to be a symbolic home for these people. In April, construction began.

    During the festival, the column raising festival took place.

    In the Venice Biennale, we displayed the whole process. The photos lining the walls are by a resident of the area who lost his home.

    Here, I'd like to reconsider the nature of the agriculture landscape in KK's work. In his latter years he spoke about how Japanese culture was formed through agrarian culture. The farm is situated between the terraced rice fields, as an infrastructure.

    A close relationship between inside and outside.

    KK would talk about how tools and furniture came from this farm culture.

    We can perceive the importance of re-examining these landscapes that might have disappeared for various practical reasons, but that especially in this period after the 3-11 disaster, become important.

    This woman that we saw who lost her house, she had a normal livelihood, but through this disaster emerged an almost primited motherly force that transfixed the area. This primitive architecture emerged from this primitive-like force that emerged from people's responses to the tragedy.

    TI perceives the need to rethink these fundamentals; what is the village--what is the future paradigm? And he looks to this model of the agrarian foundation.

    At this point, how I see KK's metabolism, is not as an industrial future, but in this natural context, shaped by natural forces, and is organic and metabolic and changing in that way.

    Thank you very much. [appause]

    8:09: MM asks about how TI started and almost ended with the single-family house. "The problem I see with the village or single-family house, is that it doesn't have the organization structure that is implied by the larger-scale." In the recovery from the tsunami, we don't have time for each family to bulid their own house; there's the scale of the government helping rebuild, which is more at the scale of the metabolists.

    TI: "It's a very difficult question, but it's interesting to see Rem Koolhaas' project. In the interviews, we can see how in the 60s is the idea of the nation-state, appealing to the country. When you look at the broader picture of the metabolists, especially Tange, you see them riding international currents, but it's only KK where you see a real push for traditional culture. It was really the difficulty of approaching the metabolists, and seeing the international push within the national context, as opposed to this other current. In observing KK's work, you see him really becoming an independent voice; it's not about expressing Japan for the sake of Japan. It's looking to the reality of what it is, especially at the small scale. So, it's really in his perception this smaller-scale, felt, bodily architecture; so it is a particular perspective.

    MM: "I can continue, but...please, go ahead."

    Question from the audience: (couldn't hear exactly, but it was asking TI to compare KK and another contemporary figure in metabolism.)

    (The answer is several minutes long; I feel sorry for Mr. Oshima who is translating!)

    TI: Both Shinohara and KK were my highly respected elders. ...In looking at KK there is a sense of connection to society from the inside, working from within the social context. In this post tsunami era, it's especially important for architects to have this perpsective, which is often missing.

    Question from the audience: Metabolism was incredible in the way that the architects came together around a particular theoretical project; is that possible today? And what is the role of theory today in Japan; is there such a thing as Japanese architecture?

    TI: This problem is not only one in Japan, but one could perhaps say it is in the USA as well. It was truly a unique moment in the 1960s when there was this energy that emerged, but that quickly changed in the 70s, in the failure to realize the kind of utopia that was envisioned. Seeing those failures, and the capitalistic market took over. So, as Rem Koolhaas talks about in Project Japan, this project we see today in the metabolists was this glimmering moment that we spoke about today. As a student I was taken by this whole movement, but that has disappeared. At this moment, it's important to see the social component of architecture and to think about what is truly possible in this broader sphere.

    Question from the audience about raised spaces.

    TI: Of course you can see this worldwide, especially with Le Corbusier's use of the pilotis and raising the ground plane. But in Japan this is also from ancient times, from the raised storehouses that were intended to keep grain dry. In the contemporary urban context this is especially difficult, and he's looking to this other, agrarian paradigm.

    Question from the audience: It seems difficult for any young architect today to take up a reflection on the vernacular? Do you see this being taken up outside of disaster relief situations?

    TI: Even before the disaster, I believe this needed to be rethought, in the relationship between inside and outside, and our relationship with nature and the environment. After the earthquake and visiting the disaster areas, it's seeing this love and this look towards the agrarian context that people really strove for. That was impressive and really moved TI. It was not just as an elder architect, but even younger architects who went to the area felt that sense. So it's not about moving towards traditional architecture, but to rethink the relationship to the land and region, which is important in the 21st century.

    MM closes the event. "One of the things that's been very inspiring is that the Venice Biennale project, collaborating with Fujimoto, Inui, and Hirata, opens up the notion of relations and friendships, and it allows Ito-San to be the maverick that he was when he started his firm--as an urban nomad--and to try to do that now in the farmlands. So good luck, and move ahead with this new project, and new friendships and new affiliations, from which we can all learn." [applause]

  • Live Blog - Aggregate and Ed Eigen

    Hi Archinect, I haven't normally attended the GSD's "PhD Talks" as I'm not a PhD student here, but today the researchers collectively known as "Aggregate Architectural History Collaborative" are having a conversation wtih Ed Eigen, about a book that I admire very much called Governing by Design...

  • Live Blog - Kengo Kuma, "After March 11th"

    Hi Archinect, Kengo Kuma in full Piper tonight! You can view the video at the GSD's YouTube channel. I came in a little late, unfortunately, but just in time to see KK show a picture of a recent project in which "nothing happens"--there was no evidence of the project in this image of a hill...

  • Live Blog - Günther Vogt, "City as Territory as Landscape"

    Hi Archinect! I'm in Piper for Zürich-based landscape architect Günther Vogt's lecture. From the GSD website: Günther Vogt will present a talk on the nature of outdoor spaces, making reference to his projects, which approach landscape in the context of the city and urbanization...

  • Thesis: is performance in architecture like the performance of a machine, or a theater?

    Hi Archinect! This post goes along with this one where I shared two videos that started my work on thesis this semester. Here, I wanted to explain a bit about what I mean by "unaccomplished performances," which is the working title for the project: I’m starting with the question: what do we...

  • Thesis: unaccomplished performances (video)

    Hi Archinect! I’m in thesis this semester in the M.Arch.I program, and am being advised by my studio critic from first (!) semester, Danielle Etzler, as well as K. Michael Hays. We kicked off the semester with a pin-up in the first week of September, and a desk crit this past Monday. The...

    unaccomplished performance - time lapse

    unaccomplished performance - charcoal dawn

  • Live Blog - George Lakoff, "The Brain's Politics"

    Hi Archinect! I'm at MIT for George Lakoff's talk,"The Brain's Politics: How Campaigns Are Framed and Why." The talk's blurb says: Everything we learn, know and understand is physical — a matter of brain circuitry. This basic fact has deep implications for how politics is understood, how...

  • Live Blog - Jürgen Mayer H., "pre.text / vor.wand"

    Hi Archinect! It looks like a cat sat on my keyboard, but "pre.text / vor.wand" is the title of Jürgen Mayer H.'s lecture tonight in Piper. This has been the first week of classes. (I'm in my thesis semester and second last semester of my M.Arch.I.--more on thesis soon.) 6:36pm: Scott Cohen...

  • Economic Considerations Regarding the Future of the Architecture Profession

    Hi Archinect, Here's the excellent slide deck from a presentation by Kermit Baker, Chief Economist at the American Institute of Architects, in a "collateral discussion" (whatever that is) held on March 4, 2012 (as posted online at The main theme, as I see it: baby boomers holding on to...

  • ContemPLAY: Adventures in full-scale digital fabrication (interview with Sophie Wilkin from McGill)

    Hi Archinect! M.Arch. students from my alma mater, McGill School of Architecture, have designed and built a steel and wood pavilion that they’re calling ContemPLAY, and I recently sat down with team member Sophie Wilkin (via text chat) to find out more. Here’s an edited version of our...

  • A Single Surface, Multiple Players: Design and Construction of the Stair for the BSA Space

    Hi Archinect! It's been a while--I've been enjoying summer! But I did find time to chat with Eric Höweler (Höweler + Yoon Architecture), Patrick McCafferty (Arup Boston), Jason Smith (Commodore Builders), and Tom Couturier (Couturier Iron Craft) about their collaboration on the stair...

    Patrick McCafferty: “Arup’s in-house finite element software was used to analyze the dynamic response of the stair in order to fine-tune the structural design and detailing requirements.” This video, courtesy Arup Boston, shows the stress contours as load is applied to the stair.

  • Live Blog: Marikka Trotter and K. Michael Hays

    Hi Archinect! I’m at the very beautiful Cambridge Public Library (by William Rawn Associates) for a conversation between Marikka Trotter (co-editor with Esther Choi of Architecture at the Edge of Everything Else) and K. Michael Hays, who was co-author together with Trotter of...

  • Live Blog: Scott Cohen and Nader Tehrani, "my house is better than your house"

    Hi Archinect! This one is for the lols. The GSD's Scott Cohen and Nader Tehrani, Head of the Department of Architecture at MIT, are having a friendly lunchtime debate--as illustrated by the hot air rising from each house in the poster. 12:10: Scott opens things, describing his close and collegial...

  • Live Blog: Margaret Livingstone, "What Art can tell us about the Brain"

    Hi Archinect! I'm at MIT today for Margaret Livingstone's lecture on visual perception. She'll be talking about how works of visual art can inform us about how we see. (Her excellent book with many visual games and informative optical illusions is called Vision and Art: the biology of seeing.)...

  • note to incoming GSD and Career Discovery students about housing

    Hello, Sorry to abuse my blog in this way, but this is just to reach out to incoming GSD (and MIT) students, as well as GSD Career Discovery summer students, who are looking for apartments. We have a Facebook group with almost 300 members called 'Harvard GSD Housing' where you can post ads...

  • video: Marc Simmons, you talk pretty

    Hi Archinect! I wasn't able to live blog last night's lecture by Marc Simmons from Front, but it's just as well, as he talks so articulately that it's better to watch the video yourself, at the GSD's YouTube channel. It was a great presentation of Front's façade consultation and...

  • Live Blog: One Harvard: Lectures that Last

    Hi Archinect! I'm at the Charles Hotel in Harvard Square for the Harvard Graduate Council's 'One Harvard: Lectures that Last.' Top professors from each of Harvard's twelve schools have been rounded up to to give a talk:     Roland Baron | Harvard School of Dental Medicine...

  • maps

    Hi Archinect! By now, you've probably seen Google's April 1 release of its 8-bit map for NES. But have you seen this real-time animated map of wind in the United States? And this Metro Distortion Map that shows the travel time to stations in Washington DC? And Mapnificent, which shows what places...

    Google Maps 8-bit for NES

  • Live Blog: George Baird

    Hi Archinect! George Baird is giving a lunchtime lecture today, hosted by the student groups CanadaGSD and LandGSD. Baird is the former Dean (2004-2009) of the John H. Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape, and Design, and is a partner in the Toronto-based architecture and urban design firm...

  • Wide Open: Young designers discuss their professional horizons and architecture’s future

    [Photo by Julie Chen for ArchitectureBoston] Hi Archinect! ArchitectureBoston, a quarterly publication of the Boston Society of Architects, is undergoing a change in leadership. The founding editor, Elizabeth Padjen, is stepping down after fourteen years of service and Renée Loth, a Boston...

  • Live Blog: Rosalind Williams, "Infrastructure of Lived Experience"

    Hi Archinect! 6:25: I have springtime allergies here and would rather be at home...but here I blogging Rosalind Williams' keynote lecture for this weekend's Landscape Infrastructure conference. The conference, organized by GSD Landscape professor Pierre Bélanger, is subtitled...

  • Apeira: architectural speculation

    Hi Archinect! Just to mention that my former roommate, recent GSD M.Arch.II grad (and thesis prize winner) Etien Santiago, has launched a new print and online journal called 'Apeira.' The first issue includes: The Whole of Apeira / Etien Santiago Fêlure in Humans and Machines / Lea Anglais...

  • Comment: GPS-based social networking, or the death of the flaneur

    Although I'm actually pretty keen on the potentials of pervasive computing, the current hype about GPS-based social networking apps makes me uneasy. The idea is that your mobile device will be able to tell you when somebody in your vicinity has or shares certain interests (or other...

  • Live Blog: Rem Koolhaas

    Hi Archinect! Koolhaas in the haas. Omagawd! [Photo from Chauhaus--our cafeteria--courtesy of Paul Cattaneo.] Koolhaas just introduced the study-abroad Rotterdam studio he's teaching in the fall, and now...he's giving a talk called "Current Preoccupations," with Q+A led by Sanford Kwinter and K...

  • Live Blog: "Ethics of the Urban: the City and the Spaces of the Political"

    Hi Archinect, I'm sitting on the floor in a very stuffy, very tiny room for the last session of this weekend's conference, "Ethics of the Urban: the City and the Spaces of the Political." Gerald Frug and Richard Sennett are speaking, moderated by Neil Brenner. 4:45: Gerald Frug: "Richard Sennett...

  • Live Blog: Saskia Sassen, "Immigrants and Citizens in the Global City"

    Hi Archinect! The sultry r&b is playing, and Saskia Sassen is in front of the gold curtain this Friday night for the keynote lecture of the conference, "Ethics of the Urban: the City and the Spaces of the Political." This is the third in a series of conferences organized by Dean Mostafavi...

  • Live Blog: Samuel Klein, "Future of Civic Participation: Lessons from the cult of Wikipedians"

    Hi Archinect, I'm at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government tonight for a talk with Samuel Klein, Trustee at Wikipedia. It's a small crowd, but we'll see how it goes. 6:43: How ironic, we're starting with some technical difficulties. 6:44: SK is asking who has started a Wikipedia entry that...

  • Live Blog: Richard Sennett, "The Architecture of Cooperation"

    Hi Archinect! I'm a bit under the weather today, but this is one not to miss. Richard Sennett, the GSD's Senior Loeb Fellow for 2012 (and faculty member at New York University and the London School of Economics) is talking about the "Architecture of Cooperation": “The theme of the lecture...

  • Live Blog: “Design Technologies as Agents of Change,” with Bock, Seletsky, Oxman, Rocker, and Bechthold.

    Hi Archinect! Tonight's event is called “Design Technologies as Agents of Change,” with Thomas Bock (TU Munich), Paul Seletsky (ArcSphere New York), Rivka Oxman (Technion Haifa), and Ingeborg Rocker (GSD). Moderated by Martin Bechthold (GSD). Three Germans tonight! 6:32: It's still a...

  • Live Blog: Philip Glass

    Hi Archinect, We're back in full Piper, eagerly awaiting Philip Glass. I'm not sure what will happen. Our website says that "Mr. Glass will speak on the theme of collaboration and the creative process and, through brief performances, share selections from his oeuvre." [Photo by Fernando Aceves...

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About this Blog

Lectures and exhibitions, news and events, now primarily from the Bay Area! Please note that all live blogs are abridged and approximate. If you want to see exactly what happened, in many cases a video of the event is posted online by the event's hosts.

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  • Lian Chikako Chang

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