Learning by doing in Japan

  • anchor

    studying architecture in japan

    will galloway
    Jun 13, '16 11:20 AM EST

    There is a message in my inbox about once or twice a week asking for advice on how to study architecture in Japan. Many of the people who followed through and ended up studying  here have ended up becoming friends so I am genuinely happy to get those messages. Still, I notice I am becoming repetitive in my response so to indulge my laziness I wrote the major points down here. If you have any questions not covered in the text below, feel free to drop a line.


    Every mail I get has three big questions. I try to answer these and add a point or two more that nobody asks about because its kind of unexpected. Based only on my experience this is what I know about studying architecture in Japan...



    sure, you bet. no problem. You can study in Japan in English if you want to. Among the top universities I imagine all of the professors can speak in English by now. The students on the other hand may not, and that is where it gets complicated and the point of view of the professor changes the outcome. In some classes professors will summarize discussions in both Japanese and English. In others the language is set and only a bit of translation is offered - that can go in either direction. Its tedious to sit for an hour listening to a group talk in a language you can't understand, but I see it all the time. In my own classes I teach one undergrad course on sustainable design entirely in English and its fine, but in a master's course I need to say the same thing twice, once for each language. When it comes to one on one time with a professor, for studio or thesis then its no problem at all. English is more than enough. In the major schools you can do your thesis in English as well, no problem at all.

    Outside of school is another thing altogether. Japanese education includes 6 years of English in elementary school and more in high school, and its part of all the entrance exams for university. This seems to be symbolic. If you go to a restaurant English is only common in the tourist areas. Trains and buses are at least labeled in English now, and Tokyo is getting ready for the olympics so there is more and more of it. So you can survive here no without any Japanese if you want. I absolutely recommend taking trips to places where there is no English though. That's where all the interesting things happen.

    If you really want to study only in English the most hard core place recently is at the University of Tokyo, under the guidance of Yusuke Obuchi. He keeps it all English all the time. He also is doing some kick-ass work with computational design and fabrication.



    There are many scholarships depending on where you come from, but the one that always comes up, and the one that I used to study here is called the monbukagakusho. It needs to be applied to from your own country, takes about a year to get through, and is pretty competitive. But it pays full tuition plus a living stipend that is enough to live in Tokyo on. This is the fund I used to pay for my PhD at U of Tokyo. It was not quite enough for me because I had a family, but was awesome just the same. Definitely recommend it.



    Architecture is popular in Japan and there are quite a few universities with an architecture program. The best ones are the University of Tokyo, Keio University, Waseda University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama Graduate School of Architecture (Y-GSA).

    For the connections, U of Tokyo is the best, and if you are into computational design its also awesome. Very similar to the AA, and getting better (Kuma is also a professor there, a great way to get into his office if that is an ambition). Keio at SFC is based on project-based learning. Shigeru Ban is here, so you can imagine the students travel around building in disaster areas a lot. He is just one professor though and other profs do different things, like building zero energy houses, etc. This is the most relaxed school I have taught at so far in Japan. Waseda is more conventional in the sense that it feels more like a Western university to me, with more or less regular studios, etc. I dont know the others so well except by reputation, so I rely on google to fill in the gaps.



    Nobody ever asks me what a laboratory is. I'm not sure if it is unique to Japan or not, but it has huge consequences to the education experience. Basically when you apply to a university the person who decides your life for the duration of your study is the head of a lab, which you have to apply to when you apply to the school. This means you have to contact the professor as soon as possible in the process. If you have an idea for research it should match what your professor is interested in or s/he will likely push to change it. What it comes down to is that students in a lab are all working on one big project that the professor is guiding over the long term. Students come and go, but the work is constant and usually ambitious and interesting. The professors kind of need your work to fit in to their big idea in some way for it to make sense for them. When you apply it is useful to keep this in mind. 

    Labs rule the Japanese world the way studio does in the North American system. The reality of what this means is that while there are studio courses nobody really cares about them. Sometimes there are a few students who take it seriously, but the real work is whatever the lab is doing. At Keio this is exaggerated because our students are building and that takes a lot of time and planning and travel. It means there are no summer breaks (we build overseas during breaks, usually), and that a lot of time spent in the lab is focused on production. Our graduates are great at project management and adapting to surprises. They are not as strong at design though, because they don't really get to practice much. They will have to develop those skills in an office.

    The big upshot of all this is that the professors are leading the show. If there is going to be a cutting edge it will be on them, not the students or the school as a whole to find the way forward.

    Closely related to this is that Japanese architecture schools are mostly all founded on engineering and science. That means the master thesis is not a design but actual research. With data. Data! Architects are not normally trained to do research so its kind of hit or miss in my experience but if you are creative it is an amazing opportunity. If the lab you are in is a good fit you might even get to do work on the cutting edge.

    If you really want to focus on design I hear that the University of Tokyo allows students to do a design project instead of a paper. Apparently Keio has the same deal, but I've never seen a student go that route in the last 5 years here.

    Acclimatizing to the research led approach to architecture study is something I see students from overseas struggle with a lot. When they get it sorted its pretty cool. When it goes well its because the student has a clear idea and/or talked to their lab professor as much as possible before applying.


    • gooma

      Thank you very much for posting this! It is really a great help as I am totally lost in Japanese website...

      I got my bachelor degree in UK, I guess its education system is quite different from Japan, but I am really interested in Japanese culture and architecture and planning to study in a  master course in Japan.

      I still have few questions after reading your post ...

      Most of unis courses require N1 level, is it still possible to get into a lab without Japanese test?

      I also saw Meiji University has an English programme for graduates. Do you know anything about it?


      Thanks in advance!

      Aug 10, 16 11:19 pm

      I dont know anything about Meiji except that I know a few of the professors in passing. It is a well regarded university.

      About English and Japanese, short answer is you can probably get into the lab without a Japanese test. You might need to take an exam to enter the university, and that is often offered in English as well as in Japanese, but that depends on the university.

      If the school is internationally oriented you should be able to do your thesis in English, so I would assume that not speaking Japanese at all is OK if you really want to. That said, the monbukagakusho scholarship has a 6 month intensive Japanese course that students are expected to take before they go into the proper program. It is not really enough to do more than get by though, so its purpose is a bit of an open question. In my case when I did PhD at U of Tokyo my professor waived the language requirement and I spent the 6 months preparing for the entrance exam and doing some work on my actual research. In the lab very few students spoke English at any level of proficiency, but that is not what I see around me so much anymore. Professors will definitely speak in English and if they are interested in you they will work out a way to have you in their lab.

      English is becoming more common, and as I mentioned above in the lab of Yusuke Obuchi you work entirely in English. I would guess that if the program is advertised as an English program then it actually will be, or mostly so (sometimes its hard to do it 100% in English). That said, at Keio I teach studio in Japanese and English; a sustainable design and architectural history entirely in English for undergrad; and a course on design thinking and business only in English as well. The only difference is that there are few masters students who want to study in English, while undergrad courses have more students, which is probably a problem in terms of making it worthwhile for the university. Universities will respond to that kind of demand issue in their own way and that is where you will see a difference.

      hope this helps

      Aug 15, 16 11:16 pm

      Thank you so much for your post, it has clarified a lot. 

      Unfortunately though as soon as I start my research I get stuck again. I finished high school in May 2016 and want to apply for an undergraduate course in Architecture in Japan, in English. I have gone through all the universities you had mentioned, and was able to find out a lot about their programs, but have been able to find only one English undergraduate program at Kyoto Seika University, which also requires a Japanese language test. As soon as I go to any of the admission for any of the universities architecture always disappears under the english programs offered.

      I would be very grateful if you could give me any tips of universities where you know of that they offer English undergraduate programs. 

      Thanks in advance! 

      Oct 28, 16 7:56 pm

      Do you know if any of the schools you mentioned accept payment from the US Veterans Affair aka GIBill? Also, I did some search on the schools that you mentioned but it seems like only M.Arch is offered and not B.Arch. I am interested in pursuing a career in architecture and looking to possibly study in Japan. Any advice would be greatly appreciated. Thanks in advance.

      Jan 26, 17 2:21 am

      Dr. Will Galloway, I am currently trying to apply through monbukagakusho scholarship for master's degree, and i was wondering if you know a reference in which i can study from for the entrance exam at any Japanese university or past exam samples. Because I just want to get to know about how hard are the entrance exams at Japanese universities.

      Feb 10, 17 8:44 pm

      About undergrad architecture schools I have not heard of any that run in English. Usually it is masters level where that becomes common. This does not mean they dont exist, I just dont know about them. Keio SFC offers a course called GIGA, which is all in English and you can take architecture courses, but if you want a professional degree in the end you need to study in Japanese (makes sense, the laws are in Japanese, so are contracts, etc). 

      Japanese websites are horrible. This is my opinion but I think its grounded in fact. Somehow they are still more for show than as places where things are expected to happen. Its a frustration for many I am sure. In general most of the information you need to enter a university is also in Japanese not English.

      About GI bill, I have no idea, but seems unlikely on the face of it.

      About exams to enter universities, once you are accepted you will have 6 months as a research student to prepare for the entrance exam. You should go to the university library and take out previous exams to study with once you arrive. The exams are not easy. In my case it was similar to the test for licensure, but much simpler. Expect some structures/math questions, a bit of history, some site planning problems. If you have practiced architecture in an office it is easier. Having said that, the exam is likely different at every university, and at UofTokyo if you take the global COE program I hear there is no exam at all. You only need to get into the program itself...

      Feb 12, 17 6:19 pm

      Thank you for this great summary - this is very helpful. I am applying for an exchange for the Geidai University in Tokyo, which is the University of the Arts. Unfortunately I can not find anything about what this program is about. I was hoping maybe you know something about this school and could give me a brief overview how the design philosophy looks like? The Geidai University is famous for its music program, so I am afraid the architecture class is not their main strength.(I'm currently studying in Austria in a school with a more Sci-Arc-like orientation.) I am thankful for any help!

      Mar 2, 17 7:25 am

      I don't know Geidai so well but do know one of the professors there, Tom Heneghan -you might find something about him through the google machine.

      The school location is great, next to Ueno park which is cool on its own, and includes amazing architecture by Le Corb, Kunio Maekawa as well as Taniguchi. Also a nice children's library by Tadao Ando in the area.

      I would not expect it to be Sci-Arc like, somehow, since its a govt university and those tend to be conservative...but you never know.

      Mar 3, 17 1:23 am

      one thing i might add about geidai is that it is an art school where most architecture education here is based in engineering school.

      this may mean they focus more on theory and conceptual work, but i could not confirm that from experience. What I do know is that in schools taught in the engineering pool do not teach theory or conceptual clarity. Students and practitioners here tend to rely on intuition with their work and to otherwise follow practical trends. Designs are buildable and boring. They also tend to focus on how they will be inhabited by individuals, which explains why there are so many ethereal drawings and models with people living what we can imagine would be real lives. In Western tradition I feel people do not really matter to design, the goal is the architecture in and of itself (see the recent pritzker winners for reference). In Japan buildings are more like containers for people and about space more than tectonics. This seems to come, perhaps ironically, from the engineering background combined with a complete lack of interest in history, but I am again only speculating about the origin of this approach. The results are often stunning, especially when Sejima or Fujimoto are doing it. When the students and professors do not require more of themselves the outcome can be pretty lame. I do not know where Geidai rests on this scale, but they are one of the top schools in Japan, so perhaps you will find it a good experience.

      Mar 4, 17 2:42 am

      Dr. Will Galloway, I am currently trying to apply through monbukagakusho scholarship for master's degree, and i was wondering if you know which universities should i mention in my forms , since i'm supposed to mention name of three universities that i will apply for them . My interest is technology and i'm studing in Iran . I like to know which fields of study i can choose and about field of research ...

      Apr 26, 17 9:19 am

      When i applied for monbukagakusho i applied to university of tokyo only. I was advised to not apply to the private schools like Keio and Waseda. This is still a thing apparently. Unless you can prove that your research can only be done at Keio for instance they are unlikely to let you go there (higher tuition is the reason, I presume).

      The system has changed since I went through it. For what it is worth If I were to name three then u of tokyo, tokyo institute of technology, and maybe try keio or waseda in spite of the above.

      technology as a topic is too broad to offer any opinion about. I am not able to comment on field of research either, except that you should be specific and tailor it to the school you want to go to and the professor you will study under. I would also advise not to be overly romantic about japan and to find real information by reading articles etc. Best of luck.

      Apr 27, 17 3:58 am

      sir i am final year Architectural student in one of recognized university of (kpk) Pakistan .

      sir can you help me in finding scholarship for my master study in university of japan .

      what will be the process ?

      thank you sir ..

      Apr 28, 17 3:27 pm

      Try finding MEXT scholarship at the Japanese embassy in Pakistan. After that maybe you can look at ADB site. I have no other ideas, sorry.

      I'm an architect not a school Councillor ;-)

      May 1, 17 4:12 am

      Dr Will, What about Parametric design method and standards . I'm very interesting in studying this field in Japan but I don't know which universities are the top in this field .Would you recommend me three universities ? Does Keio University provide English programs in this field ?  Thanks in advance 

      May 1, 17 2:44 pm

      Thanks so much for the post! I'm wondering if it'd be too much trouble telling us which universities have post-grad or masters programs for architects? I'm interested in Sustainable Development and Emergency Architecture. I'm going through some websites and it's really not helping. Or maybe I should try directly contacting them?

      May 1, 17 8:39 pm

      Hello Dr. Will Galloway. Thank you for all the input you've provided. It was the most helpful on the topic that I could find.
      I am an architect from Brazil, and I'm planning on applying for the MEXT scholarship for the research program.
      My question for you is: is there any online platforms that you recommend for searching professors and what they're working on, and in which schools they're developing those researches?
      Thank you in advance.

      May 29, 17 11:19 pm

      hi thanks for your information you posted, my name is elio sharara i will graduate may 2018 with a master degree in architecture (duration 6 years) and i am willing to do a master and phd program in design of highrise buildings (skyscrapers)  or project management. Please send me the email adress of Dr. kuma so i can contact him. Do you suggest other universities witch are good in skyscrapers design and project management.

      Aug 6, 17 1:29 pm

      thank you for all the info ! 

      I have got only one question - when i searched up for the program of Yusuke Obuchi, i didn't reslly understand who could sign up for this program ; master students or anyone? Its written there that education in architecture is not required, but its strongly preferred. On the other hand, it's mentioned that only 10 master's degree students are admitted. So basically, you could have a b.a in anything? I didn't really realised this thing.

      Could you please make it clear for me?

      Aug 15, 17 1:00 am

      its a graduate school as far as i know


      Hi! I'm from Paraguay, that scolarship you mentioned (thank god) exists in my country, now.. I'm a bit scared and anxious about the admissions test, my school is so far behind!! The scolarship itself is reachable, but what about the exams there? I want to apply for the U of Tokyo.. 

      Thanks a LOT for all the information! I will let you know if I ever get in there lol

      Oct 19, 17 8:32 pm

      Block this user

      Are you sure you want to block this user and hide all related comments throughout the site?

    • Back to Entry List...
  • ×Search in:

About this Blog

keio university's architecture program is probably the best kept secret in the country. Hidden away on a campus an hour from tokyo the curriculum is wide open and connected to a campus-wide project aimed at community-driven innovation. students of economics can take courses in architecture and vice versa but we all are expected to take part in real projects somewhere in the world. there are a few starchitects on the faculty but mostly we are hoping to make a difference.

Affiliated with:

Authored by:

Recent Entries