Archinect - News 2017-08-22T01:47:30-04:00 https://archinect.com/news/article/150020708/fire-safety-reform-australian-state-government-to-audit-replace-and-ban-flammable-cladding Fire safety reform: Australian state government to audit, replace and ban flammable cladding Alexander Walter 2017-08-02T13:46:00-04:00 >2017-08-02T13:47:09-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/6h/6h36dmqg1pqec43d.jpg" width="650" height="488" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>The state government will audit the use and ban the supply of the potentially flammable building cladding that led to London's deadly Grenfell Tower inferno, in what it styles as Australia's toughest fire safety reforms. [...] Better Regulation Minister Matt Kean said the government had undertaken an audit sample of about 180,000 residential and commercial towers constructed in NSW since the 1980s. About 1000 of those buildings "may have [unsafe] cladding", the Minister said.</p></em><br /><br /><p>"The [New South Wales] state government said it would&nbsp;introduce reform that would identify buildings encased in unsafe cladding," the<em> Sydney Morning Herald</em> reports, "require them to be inspected and force building owners to foot the bill for replacements and ban the sale and supply of unsafe material."</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150020348/82-buildings-fail-fire-safety-test-in-the-wake-of-grenfell-tower-tragedy 82 buildings fail fire safety test in the wake of Grenfell Tower tragedy Alexander Walter 2017-08-01T04:00:00-04:00 >2017-07-31T17:34:17-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/27/279efg5po2l1mkl2.jpg" width="650" height="366" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Eighty-two buildings have failed a new fire safety test set up in the wake of the Grenfell Tower fire, ministers say. The test examines the safety of building cladding and insulation in combination. It comes as an independent review of building regulations and fire safety has also been announced by the government. It will look at current building regulations and fire safety, focusing on high-rise residential buildings.</p></em><br /><br /><p>"The new fire safety test is the first of a wave of more comprehensive assessments, which come after previous tests were carried out on hundreds of cladding samples in recent months - many of these failed standards for flammability," the BBC reports and outlines key examination goals of the upcoming independent review.&nbsp;</p> <p>At least 80 people lost their lives and over 70 were injured in a tragic fire on June 14 that rapidly spread through the building and engulfed the majority of the&nbsp;24-story <a href="http://archinect.com/news/tag/959732/grenfell-tower" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Grenfell Tower</a> block of public housing flats in West London.</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150014594/34-buildings-in-london-evacuated-after-failing-fire-tests-in-light-of-grenfell-tower-tragedy 34 buildings in London evacuated after failing fire tests in light of Grenfell Tower tragedy Mackenzie Goldberg 2017-06-26T13:29:00-04:00 >2017-06-26T13:29:23-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/oz/ozsw3kevkepjdkbi.jpg" width="650" height="487" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Britain said 34 high-rise apartment blocks had failed fire safety checks carried out after the deadly Grenfell Tower blaze, including several in north London where residents were forced to evacuate amid chaotic scenes.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Two weeks ago, a <a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/150012673/london-tower-block-fire-kills-twelve-previous-warnings-about-very-poor-fire-safety-standards-may-have-gotten-ignored" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">low-income residential tower in London tragically caught fire</a> resulting in the death of <em>at least</em> 79 occupants. The incident has sparked a national (and even international) conversation about the safety standards set by London officials for low-income residents as it has been discovered that certain precautions like sprinkler systems were deemed unnecessary in the interest of cutting costs. In addition, a cladding on the exterior of the building has been largely determined as the reason the fire lead to such deadly results. The same material is <a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/150013308/grenfell-tower-fire-up-to-30k-other-buildings-clad-in-the-same-material-likely-responsible-for-the-fire" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">said to clad tens of thousands of buildings in more than 87 tower blocks across the United Kingdom</a>.</p> <p>In an attempt to avoid similar failures in the future, British officials have inspected over 600 high-rise buildings across England. From this, the Department for Communities has concluded that 34 apartment blocks across the country fail to meet safety standards. The aluminum cladding that covered Grenfell has begun to be remove...</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150013308/grenfell-tower-fire-up-to-30k-other-buildings-clad-in-the-same-material-likely-responsible-for-the-fire Grenfell Tower Fire: Up to 30K Other Buildings Clad in the Same Material Likely Responsible for the Fire Nicholas Korody 2017-06-19T12:23:00-04:00 >2017-06-20T10:13:42-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/i7/i787fco2uof9qerz.jpg" width="650" height="867" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>There are tens of thousands of buildings in more than 87 tower blocks across the United Kingdom clad in the same aluminum composite that experts claim was largely responsible for the severity of the blaze that erupted on Grenfell Tower in Kensington and claimed at least 79 lives. The material, which is banned in the United States and elsewhere, is intended to improve the aesthetics of the towers, in part to raise nearby property values.&nbsp;</p> <p>In the case of Grenfell Tower, by just spending &pound;5,000 more on the&nbsp;&pound;8.6 million refurbishment, a fire resistant cladding could have been used and saved these lives. This is not new information. Back in 2000, an inquiry said all cladding systems should use non-combustible materials, following a blaze in Scotland responsible for the death of an elderly man. In addition to the cladding, a lack a sprinkler systems has been blamed for the fire. Just one of eight councils has said it put sprinklers into their flats&mdash;18 out of 2,925.</p> <p>Experts, such as archit...</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150013048/grenfell-tower-fire-corbyn-calls-for-empty-flats-in-the-adjacent-area-to-be-requisitioned-as-evidence-grows-that-negligence-responsible-for-the-blaze Grenfell Tower Fire: Corbyn calls for empty flats in the adjacent area to be requisitioned as evidence grows that negligence responsible for the blaze Nicholas Korody 2017-06-16T13:47:00-04:00 >2017-06-16T13:47:18-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/3u/3uiuf35ugph8ot38.jpg" width="650" height="487" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Reports indicate that a cladding, banned in the United States, added to the Grenfell Tower was <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2017/jun/16/manufacturer-of-cladding-on-grenfell-tower-identified-as-omnis-exteriors" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">largely responsible</a> for the intensity of the <a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/150012673/london-tower-block-fire-kills-twelve-previous-warnings-about-very-poor-fire-safety-standards-may-have-gotten-ignored" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">fire</a> that claimed <em>at least </em>30 lives earlier this week in North Kensington. It was just &pound;2 cheaper per square meter than an alternative, fire resistant version. Disturbingly, the cladding was added to appease wealthy residents nearby, <a href="http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/london-fire-grenfell-tower-kensington-mp-emma-dent-coad-cladding-refurbishment-a7792901.html" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">states</a> Emma Dent Coad, the Kensington MP, and to &lsquo;regenerate&rsquo; the area through development.</p><p>Anger has risen as the fire increasingly looks less like a tragic accident and more and more like the <a href="http://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/london-fire-anger-grows-regulations-funding-cut-after-deadly-blaze-n773336" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">result</a>&nbsp;of outdated regulations and funding cuts. For example, sprinkler systems are not mandatory in public housing blocks&mdash;raising fears that some 4,000 similar blocks are at risk of similar tragedies. It is important to note that black and minority ethnic people are disproportionately housed in such flats.</p><p>When a fire erupted in 2009 in another tower block, analysis made clear inadequate measures were being taken to address fi...</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/149971973/golden-gate-bridge-needs-additional-124m-to-build-suicide-barrier Golden Gate Bridge needs additional $124M to build suicide barrier Julia Ingalls 2016-10-04T14:09:00-04:00 >2016-11-03T22:14:40-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/is/isju0km8d8b1l25y.jpg" width="650" height="366" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Roughly 25 people each year jump to their deaths from San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge, which prompted city leaders to authorize a plan to erect a kind of&nbsp;<a href="http://Architects%20constitute%20the%20fifth%20most%20likely%20profession%20to%20commit%20suicide" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">suicide</a>-prevention stainless steel cable netting twenty feet below the bridge's deck. The netting, which is painted gray to blend in with the water below, has worked wonders on other suicide-prone perches, including the Prince Edward Viaduct. As <a href="http://www.globalconstructionreview.com/news/golden-gate-bridge-scramble-ex7tra-ca7sh-inst7all/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Global Construction Review</a> reports, the problem for the Golden Gate is that the bids for the construction have come in about $100 million more than the city anticipated (plus a +/- $20 million contingency fund). The project is on hold until January 9th to allow the city to hustle up the additional funding.</p><p>Other notable San Francisco design news:</p><ul><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149961306/luxury-condos-sink-in-san-francisco-s-millennium-tower" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Luxury condos sink in San Francisco's Millennium Tower</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149941589/san-francisco-to-mandate-solar-panels-for-new-constructions" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">San Francisco to mandate solar panels for new constructions</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149940696/man-living-in-plywood-pod-in-sf-apartment-told-to-knock-it-off-by-housing-inspector" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Man living in plywood "pod" in SF apartment told to knock it off by housing inspector</a></li></ul> https://archinect.com/news/article/149956324/architects-constitute-the-fifth-most-likely-profession-to-commit-suicide Architects constitute the fifth most likely profession to commit suicide Julia Ingalls 2016-07-06T21:06:00-04:00 >2016-07-08T22:03:43-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/gm/gmrtdmo0i2fyhfx0.jpg" width="650" height="315" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Less depressing than construction, not nearly as happy-making as&nbsp;arts, design, entertainment, sports and media: according to the CDC, architects are the fifth most likely to commit suicide in comparison with members of other professions, especially if you're a male architect (data for female architects was unavailable).&nbsp;</p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/di/dixcapwm8f50if8u.jpg"></p><p>The study chose to focus on&nbsp;12,312 suicides that took place in 17 U.S. states in 2012. According to the <a href="http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/mm6525a1.htm" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">CDC report,</a> "Occupational groups were stratified by sex, and rates of suicide were calculated for each group using denominators derived from the U.S. Census Bureau&rsquo;s Current Population Survey March Supplement (<em>5</em>), which includes a question about the person&rsquo;s primary occupation during the previous calendar year."</p><p>For more on mental health in architecture:</p><ul><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/96244091/mental-health-survey-at-university-of-toronto-s-faculty-of-architecture-reveals-worrisome-results" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Mental Health Survey at University of Toronto&rsquo;s Faculty of Architecture Reveals Worrisome Results</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/features/article/134197676/screen-print-36-harvard-design-magazine-s-well-well-well" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Screen/Print #36: Harvard Design Magazine's "Well, Well, Well"</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/138879113/an-environmental-psychologist-on-why-boring-design-is-bad-for-your-health" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">An environmental psychologist on why boring design is bad...</a></li></ul> https://archinect.com/news/article/149945014/uk-school-buildings-are-damaging-pupils-health-and-performance UK school buildings are damaging pupils’ health and performance Ellen Hancock 2016-05-13T10:03:00-04:00 >2016-05-20T00:50:12-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/e2/e2ee09a36d2674b8e03fd13399e12a26.jpg" width="620" height="465" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>School buildings in the UK are of such poor quality that children are underperforming and teachers are quitting the classroom, experts have warned. A new study by the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) found that one in five teachers have considered leaving their school as a result of stressful, overcrowded working environments caused by the poorly designed buildings they have to teach in.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Relating UK articles here:&nbsp;</p><ul><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149944844/crossrail-unveils-images-of-new-elizabeth-line-stations" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Crossrail unveils images of new Elizabeth line stations</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149944704/latest-university-of-westminster-burning-man-studio-project-needs-a-kickstart" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Latest University of Westminster Burning Man studio project needs a Kickstart</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149944509/this-week-s-picks-for-london-architecture-and-design-events" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">This week's picks for London architecture and design events</a></li></ul> https://archinect.com/news/article/149941759/building-upgrades-proposed-for-roche-dinkeloo-s-ford-foundation-building Building upgrades proposed for Roche + Dinkeloo's Ford Foundation Building Justine Testado 2016-04-21T14:10:00-04:00 >2016-05-04T23:41:35-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/a0/a0nha1v31z6gdna0.jpg" width="650" height="419" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>The Landmarks Preservation Commission is set to consider a proposed $190 million renovation to the Ford Foundation...Although many aspects of the building have long been outdated...it is health and safety, not aesthetics or technology, that initially drove the foundation&rsquo;s plans. The city has given Ford until 2019 to bring the building up to code for fire safety and handicapped accessibility...</p></em><br /><br /><p>&ldquo;...But since they had to scratch the building&rsquo;s surfaces, Ford Foundation president Darren Walker and his staff decided to go further, upgrading not just by adding sprinklers to the ceilings and greater access to the atrium, but new security, new lighting and mechanicals, and a new spatial organization.&rdquo;</p><p>More on Archinect:</p><p><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/146273961/stop-the-unpermitted-demolition-roche-dinkeloo-s-shiny-un-plaza-hotel-lobby-might-be-remodeled" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">"Stop the unpermitted demolition": Roche Dinkeloo's shiny UN Plaza Hotel lobby might be remodeled</a></p> https://archinect.com/news/article/149941413/washington-university-in-st-louis-to-phase-out-styrene-next-fall-students-express-mixed-reactions Washington University in St. Louis to phase out styrene next fall, students express mixed reactions Justine Testado 2016-04-19T13:10:00-04:00 >2016-04-19T15:26:17-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/qo/qo75k1iejx1ts9ke.jpg" width="650" height="489" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Many current architecture students are excited about the removal of styrene mainly because of the various health hazards...[However,] others are worried that it will negatively impact their work and productivity. Sophomore Sam Landay explained that it&rsquo;s not uncommon for architecture students to put their projects before their health. Even outspoken opponents of styrene admit the necessity of utilizing the material.</p></em><br /><br /><p>More on Archinect:</p><p><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/126714152/when-the-pressure-is-on-dedicated-architecture-students-show-how-to-power-nap-like-a-pro" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">When the pressure is on, dedicated architecture students show how to power nap like a pro</a></p><p><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/141279707/one-night-s-bad-sleep-equivalent-to-six-months-on-a-high-fat-diet-new-study-finds" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">One night's bad sleep equivalent to six months on a high-fat diet, new study finds</a></p><p><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/147210156/another-study-warns-that-3d-printers-pose-potential-health-risks-for-users" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Another study warns that 3D-printers pose potential health risks for users</a></p> https://archinect.com/news/article/149936224/how-one-architect-is-working-to-fix-mexico-city-s-faulty-water-supply-infrastructure How one architect is working to fix Mexico City's faulty water supply infrastructure Justine Testado 2016-03-23T18:42:00-04:00 >2016-04-08T00:42:15-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/rw/rwtk71f2npfcza3f.jpg" width="650" height="368" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>'Mexico City&rsquo;s water system goes against its own functional essence. The city is dehydrating itself. We&rsquo;re mixing our water with poisonous waste and then pumping it out through a complex network of pipes. Just like what happens when a human is dehydrated, Mexico City has diarrhea.' &mdash; Elias Cattan</p></em><br /><br /><p>"In a mega-metropolis with a deep history of corrupt leaders and state-sanctioned misinformation, [architect Elias Cattan of Taller 13] believes awareness is the first step. That&rsquo;s why he&rsquo;s part of a growing movement of environmental scientists, activists, designers and engineers determined to redesign Mexico City&rsquo;s water supply management while educating its 9 million residents in the process."</p><p>More related to public health issues on Archinect:</p><p><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/129115534/epa-study-finds-no-evidence-that-fracking-has-lead-to-polluted-drinking-water" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">EPA study finds no evidence that fracking has lead to polluted drinking water</a></p><p><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/148437202/should-the-children-of-flint-be-resettled" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Should the children of Flint be resettled?</a></p><p><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/148971924/dispatch-from-flint-how-architects-can-help-on-archinect-sessions-54" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Dispatch from Flint: How architects can help, on Archinect Sessions #54</a></p><p><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/146199131/one-ceo-s-plan-to-supply-water-to-drought-stricken-ca-cities-and-obviously-profit-from-it" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">One CEO's plan to supply water to drought-stricken CA cities, and obviously profit from it</a></p> https://archinect.com/news/article/149814167/how-to-design-that-elusive-perfect-town How to design that elusive "Perfect Town" Alexander Walter 2016-03-07T13:49:00-05:00 >2016-03-17T22:04:51-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/36/365xgq132suukl1l.jpg" width="650" height="433" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>This got us thinking about what it takes to build an ideal town: should pubs be on every residential corner or on the high street? How many trendy coffee shops are too many? Are libraries still a thing? We didn't have the answers to any of those questions, so we spoke to Matt Richards &ndash; a planner at property consultancy Bidwells &ndash; to find out what makes the perfect town.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Related stories in the Archinect news:</p><ul><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/148270911/turning-the-ugliest-building-in-liverpool-into-an-exemplar-of-public-health" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Turning the &ldquo;ugliest building in Liverpool&rdquo; into an exemplar of public health</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/139329876/urbanism-as-a-public-health-issue-oklahoma-city-s-battle-with-obesity" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Urbanism as a public health issue: Oklahoma City's battle with obesity</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/135033470/jan-gehl-s-perspective-on-making-a-good-urban-habitat-for-homo-sapiens" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Jan Gehl's perspective on making "a good urban habitat for homo sapiens"</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/135187854/how-urban-designers-can-better-address-mental-health-in-their-work-according-to-a-new-think-tank" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">How urban designers can better address mental health in their work, according to a new think tank</a></li></ul> https://archinect.com/news/article/123661102/supercomputing-project-simulates-architecture-s-influence-on-urban-microclimates Supercomputing project simulates architecture's influence on urban microclimates Alexander Walter 2015-03-24T13:24:00-04:00 >2015-04-04T22:35:05-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/q9/q90pg2zu0qv1moqs.jpg" width="650" height="385" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>A research team from the Mechanical Engineering department at University of Utah is using high-performance computing resources from XSEDE to instantaneously and accurately simulate how infrastructure elements, such as parks, buildings, and parking lots, as well as their specifications and variations, affect air characteristics and quality in urban settings.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><head><meta></head></html> https://archinect.com/news/article/97566131/moved-to-care-competition-winners-highlight-the-importance-of-safe-healthcare-for-all Moved to Care competition winners highlight the importance of safe healthcare for all Justine Testado 2014-04-08T13:56:00-04:00 >2014-04-14T19:14:21-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/b4/b4fp8ljygzot99mn.jpg" width="650" height="460" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>No matter what country you live in, everyone deserves access to safe and secure healthcare. Re-emphasizing this global issue is Building Trust International's Moved to Care competition, which sought feasible design solutions for a portable healthcare facility for high-demand regions in Southeast Asia.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Out of over 200 registered entrants, a U.S. multidisciplinary team consisting of Patrick Morgan, Jhan&eacute;a Williams, and Simon Morgan won the Professional category. The jury also selected nine honorable mentions from around the world.</p><p>For the Student category, &lsquo;REFLEX&rsquo; by Christopher Knitt (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA) was named the winner along with four honorable mentions.</p><p>Check out the winning entries below.</p><p><strong>Professional category winner:&nbsp;</strong> <strong>Patrick Morgan M-Arch, Simon Morgan MPH and Jhan&eacute;a Williams M-Arch (USA)</strong></p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/c8/c8lmya110wzdcwvb.jpg"></p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/lv/lvb1nljnli1zc937.jpg"></p><p><strong>Student category winner: "REFLEX" by Christopher Knitt (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA)</strong></p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/vl/vlvhl91gsrq3m7zx.jpg"></p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/an/anx40mhll9mc3gqq.jpg"></p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/vi/vihfdr5sql5eb36l.jpg"></p><p>Learn more about the projects on <a href="http://www.bustler.net/index.php/article/moved_to_care_competition_winners_highlight_the_importance_of_safe_hea/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Bustler</a>.</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/34830662/radioactive-fukushima-concrete-found-in-new-japanese-building Radioactive Fukushima Concrete Found In New Japanese Building MikeChino 2012-01-17T12:47:00-05:00 >2012-01-17T13:43:37-05:00 <em><p>Following last year&rsquo;s nuclear disaster in Fukushima, there has been a great deal of public concern over the contamination of local food sources and water and now, newly constructed buildings can be added to the list of radiation fears in Japan. A three-month long survey of students in Nihonmatsu City turned city officials onto the presence of high levels of radiation in one recently built three-story apartment complex.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><head><meta></head></html>