Archinect - News 2017-08-23T02:21:36-04:00 https://archinect.com/news/article/150023912/a-smog-cleaning-bike-a-kite-charging-dike-studio-roosegaarde-s-creative-design-solutions-to-infrastructural-challenges A smog-cleaning bike, a kite-charging dike: Studio Roosegaarde's creative design solutions to infrastructural challenges Julia Ingalls 2017-08-22T15:03:00-04:00 >2017-08-22T20:28:31-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/10/1053dbvlmvipmqp7.jpg" width="650" height="457" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>In the unofficial category of "Creative Pollution Solutions,"&nbsp;the Dutch firm <a href="https://archinect.com/firms/cover/5048574/studio-roosegaarde" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Studio Roosegaarde</a> is angling to be the winner: the firm has several projects that introduce innovative solutions to existing infrastructural challenges. First up, in partnership with bike-sharing firm OFO, the designers have developed a bicycle that "inhales"&nbsp;smog and then releases purified air by virute of pedaling.&nbsp;</p> <figure><p><a href="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/uploads/pz/pz2ekx41n5a6apks.jpeg" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"><img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/1028x/pz/pz2ekx41n5a6apks.jpg"></a></p></figure><p>The project, which was initially announced at a TED forum, has now advanced to the first stage of design. The bikes, which release clean air around each cyclist as they are pedaled, are not only environmentally friendly but culturally attuned:&nbsp;Daan Roosegaarde wanted to reference the iconicity of the bicycle in China while simultaneously improving air quality.</p> <figure><p><a href="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/uploads/y9/y9wk82z0ld6waoqw.jpeg" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"><img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/1028x/y9/y9wk82z0ld6waoqw.jpg"></a></p></figure><p>In addition to the bicycles, Studio Roosegaarde has also undertaken the redevelopment of the Icoon Afslvitdijk. As the architects explain:&nbsp;"It is the government-scale landscape innovation project on the legendary Dutch dike, which will ...</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150022375/stunning-construction-photos-of-zaha-hadid-architects-leeza-soho-tower-and-its-record-setting-atrium Stunning construction photos of Zaha Hadid Architects' Leeza SOHO tower and its record-setting atrium Alexander Walter 2017-08-11T21:00:00-04:00 >2017-08-15T02:44:13-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/uw/uwuly11hlocxh8e2.jpg" width="650" height="867" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Construction of the <a href="http://archinect.com/zaha-hadid" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Zaha Hadid Architects</a>-designed Leeza SOHO mixed-use tower in Beijing is making progress as newly released photographs document. <br></p> <p>Once the 46-story structure reaches its final height of 207 meters (679 feet) in September of this year, it will be home to the world's tallest atrium&nbsp;&mdash; an impressive 190-meter-tall central tunnel hugged by two wavy halves of the dissected larger volume. <br></p> <figure><p><a href="http://cdn.archinect.net/uploads/z8/z8eh4zcfl8nrak5d.jpg" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"><img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/1028x/z8/z8eh4zcfl8nrak5d.jpg"></a></p><figcaption>Photo: Yicheng Yang. Image courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects.</figcaption></figure><p>Here is how ZHA describe the project: "The 172,800m&sup2; design straddles the new subway tunnel that diagonally divides the site. The tower rises as a single volume divided into two halves on either side of the tunnel. A central atrium &ndash; the world&rsquo;s tallest &ndash; extends 190m through full height of the building and connects with the metro station below, creating a new public space for the city."</p> <figure><p><a href="http://cdn.archinect.net/uploads/6n/6nj31ofq8ca7pl8d.jpg" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"><img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/1028x/6n/6nj31ofq8ca7pl8d.jpg"></a></p><figcaption>Photo: Yicheng Yang. Image courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects.</figcaption></figure><figure><p><a href="http://cdn.archinect.net/uploads/ao/aovdxs1r1cyq0m1e.jpg" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"><img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/1028x/ao/aovdxs1r1cyq0m1e.jpg"></a></p><figcaption>Photo: Satoshi Ohashi. Image courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects.</figcaption></figure><p>"As the tower ri...</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150021924/nanjing-government-pushes-to-restore-more-of-the-city-s-historic-architecture Nanjing government pushes to restore more of the city's historic architecture Justine Testado 2017-08-09T17:30:00-04:00 >2017-08-09T17:31:01-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/6j/6jcugg6zjftpvue4.jpg" width="638" height="374" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>"Over the last 20 years, the [Nanjing] government has made real efforts to establish national laws, local laws and regulations so we can pursue this work," [architect Zhou Qi] said, of his optimism for the city's heritage preservation efforts. "It has just become common sense."</p></em><br /><br /><p>Amid the rapid urban development across China, Nanjing's government is making an effort to preserve and restore more of the city's historic buildings. Although some restorative projects expectedly attract some criticism, architect Zhou Qi &mdash; who has worked on restoring over 100 of the city's historic structures &mdash; seems optimistic about these ongoing changes.</p> <p>&ldquo;It appears that government protection, not economic forces, has kept the bulldozers at bay,&rdquo; Charles Musgrove, an associate history professor and author of &ldquo;China's Contested Capital: Architecture, Ritual, and Response in Nanjing&rdquo;, tells CNN.<br></p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150021673/david-chipperfield-s-stately-design-for-the-shanghai-centre-pompidou-revealed David Chipperfield's stately design for the Shanghai Centre Pompidou revealed Julia Ingalls 2017-08-08T14:42:00-04:00 >2017-08-08T18:05:02-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/vf/vfe1jx7scsrnliu0.jpg" width="650" height="456" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Stately, elegant, reflective:&nbsp;these adjectives have largely described the work of British architect David Chipperfield, whose structures tend to invite contemplation and pause before hot take Instagramming. His selection as the architect of the West Bund Art Museum in the new cultural center created jointly by the Centre Pompidou and Shanghai's West Bund Group is therefore not surprising, especially in light of <a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/148734913/china-says-no-to-weird-architecture" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">China's recent dictate to steer away from "weird"&nbsp;architecture.</a></p> <figure><p><a href="http://cdn.archinect.net/uploads/9e/9ezj3d7r383tt2ho.jpg" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"><img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/1028x/9e/9ezj3d7r383tt2ho.jpg"></a></p><figcaption>Image: David Chipperfield Architects</figcaption></figure><p>The renderings for the proposed 25,000 square meter structure display Chipperfield's signature moves: meticulously calibrated volumes stack atop and adjacent to one another near a reflective body of water. The renderings steer away from bold colors, favoring muted pastels. The interior renderings also convey a serene setting: an ample entrance hall is not flooded with visitors, but rather hosts only a receptionist and a single guest, effectively conveying the notion of unharrie...</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150019184/2-500-year-old-chinese-wood-joints-that-make-buildings-earthquake-proof 2,500-year-old Chinese wood joints that make buildings earthquake-proof Anastasia Tokmakova 2017-07-24T20:19:00-04:00 >2017-07-24T23:51:14-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/gj/gjyma1nkn50tr4jv.jpg" width="650" height="433" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Over thousands of years, the building science of timber framing developed independently in both Northern Europe and China. But one big difference between the regions is that China, by virtue of its size and geological traits, is prone to devastating earthquakes. Ancient Chinese builders thus needed a way to create wooden structures that could not be shaken apart, and that were not so stiff that its support members would shatter.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Known as <em>dougong</em>, these earthquake-resistant series of brackets were designed and engineered roughly 500 B.C. When interlocked together, the joints transfer weight to supporting columns, containing so many redundancies they can not be shaken apart.&nbsp;By spreading their tolerances over multiple joints they retain flexibility that prevents cracking and splitting.&nbsp;</p> <figure><p><a href="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/1028x/k9/k9idsavvedaipb9z.jpg" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"><img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/1028x/k9/k9idsavvedaipb9z.jpg"></a></p></figure><p>Perhaps the most surprising element of the system is that the columns are&nbsp;<em>not</em>&nbsp;sunken into the foundation nor moored, but are freestanding.&nbsp;</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150016217/china-s-transit-elevated-bus-is-officially-discontinued China's transit-elevated bus is officially discontinued Julia Ingalls 2017-07-06T13:37:00-04:00 >2017-07-06T14:49:32-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/wf/wfknpuwfh4k901y4.jpg" width="650" height="364" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Many transportation experts were worried about the viability of the project from its earliest stages, including one of the concept creators, Craig Hodgetts. An architecture professor at the University of California in Los Angeles, Hodgetts told Quartz last August that the TEB appeared be an &ldquo;immature project&rdquo; with some &ldquo;fundamental problems.&rdquo; He mentioned, for example, the tight space potentially having a psychological effect on drivers who might respond by braking when driving under the bus.</p></em><br /><br /><p>While no clear reason has been given as to why the trial run of the so-called "car-eating" bus has been shuttered, Chinese officials have confirmed that they are removing the electric tracks on which the TEB was running. The trial run was launched last year in August, around which time hopeful videos, such as the one below, were released to demonstrate the concept:</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150011480/hong-kong-death-trap-apartments-photographed-by-benny-lam Hong Kong death-trap apartments photographed by Benny Lam Julia Ingalls 2017-06-08T14:20:00-04:00 >2017-06-14T12:16:04-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/mv/mvjfdmo4x5dxbp7x.jpg" width="650" height="434" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Photographer Benny Lam has documented the suffocating living conditions in Hong Kong&rsquo;s subdivided flats, recording the lives of these hidden communities.</p></em><br /><br /><p>From a stove-adjacent toilet to walls crammed with knives, scissors, and precariously stacked storage cases, Benny Lam's photographs of illegally subdivided apartments in Hong Kong are like a gorgeously illustrated case study in how major disease epidemics get started. <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/cities/gallery/2017/jun/07/boxed-life-inside-hong-kong-coffin-cubicles-cage-homes-in-pictures" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">This Guardian article</a> is a showcase of Lam's Prix Pictect 2017&nbsp;shortlisted&nbsp;photographs; the video below is a literal page-turner of Lam's book, "TRAPPED," documenting the Hong Kong apartments:</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150011336/artists-and-researchers-of-seeds-of-time-exhibition-join-forces-to-rethink-approaches-to-sustainability Artists and researchers of “Seeds of Time” exhibition join forces to rethink approaches to sustainability Justine Testado 2017-06-07T17:27:00-04:00 >2017-06-07T17:28:02-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/qz/qzj0uurf1p7utwu2.jpg" width="650" height="366" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Organized into the three &ldquo;zones&rdquo; of Field, Sequence, and Rooms, the exhibition will bring together the minds of artists and designers like Diller Scofidio + Renfro, Yoko Ono, and Olafur Eliasson and researchers such as the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, who will propose solutions and approaches to the ever-pressing issues of environmental and social sustainability.</p></em><br /><br /><p>As Chapter 2 of the <a href="http://shanghai-project.org" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Shanghai Project</a>, the &ldquo;Seeds of Time&rdquo; is a cross-disciplinary exhibition designed by Hong Kong- and Madrid-based <a href="http://www.collective-studio.co/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">COLLECTIVE</a> studio and curated by Dr. Yongwoo Lee and Hans Ulrich Obrist. The exhibition is at&nbsp;the Shanghai Himalayas Museum&nbsp;until July 30.</p><p><img alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/1010x/jy/jyr1smktcw8p3qir.jpg"><br><em>Photo: Katja Lam / COLLECTIVE.</em></p><p><img alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/1010x/un/unf7kqnhvyy67qs4.jpg"><em>&ldquo;We're All Water&rdquo; by Yoko Ono. Photo: Katja Lam / COLLECTIVE.</em></p><p>Read more about it <a href="http://bustler.net/news/5713/rethinking-approaches-to-sustainability-in-the-shanghai-project-s-seeds-of-time-designed-by-collective-studio" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">on Bustler</a>.</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150010056/a-mad-gallery-in-beijing-that-doubles-as-a-new-facade-for-the-city A MAD gallery in Beijing that doubles as "a new facade for the city" Julia Ingalls 2017-05-30T19:16:00-04:00 >2017-05-30T19:16:04-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/yh/yhcrf6zvb5mikrtd.jpg" width="650" height="509" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Galleries often act as stagnant interior display spaces: their primary function is to host works in a relatively unobtrusive way that is artful without being ostentatious. But what about galleries that are designed to serve another purpose, as the freshly completed Roca&rsquo;s Beijing Gallery in Dongzhimen by MAD Architects does?</p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/8e/8eeawyxm1o9e52if.jpg"></p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/og/ogcf2m243h813o7z.jpg"></p><p>Instead of tacking a few fixed pieces onto the walls, the gallery itself has an interior LED-laden wall that projects images both of gallery visitors and the pedestrians outside in a purposeful attempt to create an interface with the surrounding urban environment. Imagine combining the introspective mirror and looped video concepts of someone like Dan Graham with the aesthetic thirst for juxtaposition of a gallery curator: the rotating series of images, which was designed by art critic and curator J&eacute;r&ocirc;me Sans, changes at varying intervals, and can be glimpsed by those passing by outside.</p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/6f/6ffbdj8xpsqubfu4.jpg"></p><p>Sometimes the changes occur in seconds; in others, days go by before the imag...</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150009978/china-leads-world-in-investing-in-africa-especially-in-egyptian-building-projects China leads world in investing in Africa, especially in Egyptian building projects Julia Ingalls 2017-05-30T13:25:00-04:00 >2017-05-30T13:25:41-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/43/43arxjbyjgigv3lr.jpg" width="650" height="349" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>How will China's $36.1 billion dollar investment shape the future of Africa? While China only has 66 projects over the continent compared to the United States' 91 projects, it has pledged about ten times the total amount of money, and the lion's share of that cash is earmarked for Egypt. As <a href="http://www.globalconstructionreview.com/trends/how-china-dwarfs-all-oth7ers-inves7ting-afr7ica/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Global Construction Review</a> notes:</p><p><em>The largest recipient of Chinese money is Egypt, which accounts for 25% of its African FDI. Here, China&rsquo;s involvement is overwhelmingly in the construction and infrastructure sector, and it has plans to spend $15b on 15 electricity, infrastructure and transport projects. This would have been higher still if it had not in February pulled out of a $20bn plan to build a new capital city.</em></p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150008209/the-tectonic-bravery-of-nbbj-s-nanjing-eco-tech-exhibition-centre The "tectonic bravery" of NBBJ's Nanjing Eco-Tech Exhibition Centre Julia Ingalls 2017-05-18T14:11:00-04:00 >2017-05-18T14:12:35-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/x4/x4u0g7zlbb21s0n8.jpg" width="650" height="595" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Symbolizing mountain ranges in architecture has the potential for a dramatic, iconic payoff, especially when the materials used to do so play an integral role in the interior experience of the building (think: the fabric peaks of the Denver International Airport, which allude to the Rocky Mountains and Native American settlements while providing ample natural light). NBBJ's Nanjing Eco-Tech Exhibition Centre manages not only to reference the&nbsp;Zhong and Stone Mountains with its eight-peaked, light cannon rooftop, but also represent the economic ascension of Nanjing itself.&nbsp;</p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/uploads/y7/y7ijt7poo9kcdpzj.jpg"></p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/uploads/w3/w35j9jqu1ywoqh6r.jpg"></p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/uploads/wb/wbun4xsoegq3nj0a.jpg"></p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/uploads/gq/gq4rk5fbd3b307ub.jpg"></p><p>Each peak drives light through the four principal floors of the structure, weaving instances of what the architects describe as "tectonic bravery" throughout. This bravery becomes the signature characteristic of the structure. While the Exhibition Centre lists a typical compliment of sustainable 21st century amenities (roof garden, integrated water retention and distribution, natural ventilation, responsive facades,...</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150008085/som-foundation-awards-2017-china-prize-to-three-grad-students SOM Foundation awards 2017 China Prize to three grad students Justine Testado 2017-05-17T20:08:00-04:00 >2017-05-17T20:08:55-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/2z/2z6gvg6go8isj5nu.jpg" width="650" height="187" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>The&nbsp;<a href="http://archinect.com/som" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Skidmore, Owings &amp; Merrill</a>&nbsp;Foundation recently awarded the 2017 China Prize to three graduate students, who each received a $5,000&nbsp;fellowship for travel and research outside of China.&nbsp;</p><p>The recipients are (click their names to see their portfolio submissions):</p><p><a href="http://www.somfoundation.som.com/fellow/yue-wu" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Yue Wu</a>&nbsp;-&nbsp;Tongji University, Graduate Student</p><p><a href="http://www.somfoundation.som.com/fellow/zhaoyang-luo" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Zhaoyang Luo</a>&nbsp;-&nbsp;Harbin Institute of Technology, Graduate Student</p><p><a href="http://www.somfoundation.som.com/fellow/hanxue-wei" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Hanxue Wei</a>&nbsp;-&nbsp;Tongji University, Graduate Student</p><p>The winners were chosen among a competitive&nbsp;group of applicants,&nbsp;who must currently be&nbsp;enrolled in the last two years of an&nbsp;undergraduate or graduate degree program in architecture or urban design in China. Entrants had to submit a portfolio, research proposal, and travel itinerary.</p><p>The&nbsp;SOM Foundation's reputable Travel and Research Fellowships have offered over 200&nbsp;student recipients an opportunity to travel outside of their home country to conduct research on&nbsp;architecture, history, culture, and design. First offered in the U.S., the program has expanded to include students...</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150006619/preservation-with-panache-the-experimental-structure-preserving-the-qianfoya-cliff-inscriptions-in-guangyuan Preservation with panache: the experimental structure preserving the Qianfoya Cliff Inscriptions in Guangyuan Nicholas Korody 2017-05-09T12:41:00-04:00 >2017-05-11T12:35:07-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/k2/k2fhnrk3pcc3zxzr.jpg" width="650" height="451" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Designing a structure to protect a historic artifact or monument from the elements can often be a dry affair. At their most basic, such structures are often simple tent canopies, or more permanent, but still bare-bone, envelopes. Not the Qianfoya Cliff Inscriptions in Guangyuan, Sichuan Province, however. Rather, Cultural Heritage Protection Center at the Architectural Design and Research Institute of <a href="http://archinect.com/schools/cover/14275323/tsinghua-university" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Tsinghua University</a> crafted a unique structure to protect the 23 caves and niches containing inscriptions from the North Wei Dynasty, some 1700 years ago.</p><p>The project description details that the local climatological conditions&mdash;lots of rain, strong winds, and a fair amount of sunshine&mdash;all are to the disadvantage of conservation. So, first and foremost, the team collected a large amount of data, which was used to create, essentially, the design brief. In other words, the architecture had to protect the inscriptions from water, decrease the velocity of passing winds, and reduce temperatur...</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150003817/mad-announces-the-2017-architecture-travel-fellowship-for-students MAD announces the 2017 Architecture Travel Fellowship for students Nicholas Korody 2017-04-19T16:59:00-04:00 >2017-04-19T16:59:16-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/8o/8oox4ccuzvnl0gw8.jpg" width="650" height="1156" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Back in 2009, Ma Yansong of MAD started a fellowship for young architects. Dubbed the MAD Architecture Travel Fellowship, it sends five international students to China, and five Chinese students out of the country. It's an incredibly simple application process: just submit a letter explaining your interests in architecture alongside a CV and a portfolio to <a href="mailto:travel@i-mad.com" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">travel@i-mad.com</a>.</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150001830/in-china-70-of-millenials-own-property In China, 70% of millenials own property Nicholas Korody 2017-04-06T17:44:00-04:00 >2017-04-12T17:25:25-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/la/lahz9ezlg4jlrqua.jpg" width="650" height="434" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Unless you live under a rock, you&rsquo;ve probably read some think piece about how millenials aren&rsquo;t buying homes. Sometimes this is construed as a cultural thing, but it probably has more to due with coming of age during and after the Great Recession.</p><p>In any case, according to a <a href="http://www.bbc.com/news/world-39512599" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">BBC article</a>, that&rsquo;s not universally the case. In China, 70% of millennials own their own home and 91% plan to buy one in the next five years. Meanwhile, in Mexico, 46% of millennials own property and, in France, 41% do. The US edges out the UK and the UAE for the fourth spot, with 35% owning property.</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150000479/dragon-proofing-why-skyscrapers-in-hong-kong-have-holes Dragon-proofing: why skyscrapers in Hong Kong have holes Julia Ingalls 2017-03-30T18:55:00-04:00 >2017-03-31T19:05:46-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/8r/8rfuajo0i46dtobg.jpg" width="650" height="390" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Have you ever realized that Hong Kong skyscrapers have holes in them? They're called dragon gates, and according to the Chinese principle feng shui these holes allow dragons to fly from the mountains to the water each day. It's believed that blocking the dragon's path could bring misfortune. Buildings with bad feng shui, such as the Bank of China Tower, have been blamed for surrounding companies going out of business.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Double-paned, waterproofed windows for insulation? Check. Reinforced steel beams for stability during an earthquake? Check. Hole in the center of the building so dragons can fly through?&nbsp;</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/150000186/ping-an-finance-center-surpasses-one-wtc-as-world-s-fourth-tallest-building-ctbuh-reports Ping An Finance Center surpasses One WTC as world's fourth tallest building, CTBUH reports Justine Testado 2017-03-29T15:12:00-04:00 >2017-03-30T12:28:36-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/kl/kl2sn1ddw0qkmtfa.jpg" width="650" height="433" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat officially declared the Ping An Finance Center in Shenzhen as the world's fourth tallest building &mdash; knocking One World Trade Center down to Number 5 in the CTBUH's ten tallest buildings in the world. Rising above Futian District at 599 meters, the Ping An tower is Shenzhen's tallest building and China's second tallest.</p><p>As of March 2017, the CTBUH's top three tallest buildings are the&nbsp;Burj Khalifa, the Shanghai Tower (which <a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/145197064/sorry-willis-tower-but-shanghai-tower-just-kicked-you-out-of-the-top-10-tallest-buildings-club-after-41-years" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">recently</a> pushed&nbsp;Chicago's Willis Tower out of the CTBUH's top 10 tallest buildings), and the Makkah Royal Clock Tower.&nbsp;</p><p><a href="http://cdn.archinect.net/uploads/7p/7pi3msvl2z1am0fl.jpg" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/7p/7pi3msvl2z1am0fl.jpg"></a><br><em>Image &copy; CTBUH. (click to enlarge)</em></p><p>Developed by Ping An Finance Center Construction &amp; Development, <a href="http://archinect.com/firms/cover/776/kohn-pedersen-fox-associates" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates</a> designed the tower like a &ldquo;taut steel cable&rdquo; with a public atrium at the base and floors of office space for the Ping An group and other tenants. Its streamlined shape reduces baseline wind loads by 35 percent and comprises eight composite megacolumns. Most notably, the Ping An...</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/149998385/to-win-recognition-china-s-smaller-cities-bet-on-starchitecture To win recognition, China's smaller cities bet on starchitecture Alexander Walter 2017-03-20T14:38:00-04:00 >2017-03-21T11:21:56-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/zl/zllkm3vd57a6fyl0.jpg" width="650" height="433" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>From egg-shaped concert halls to skyscrapers reminiscent of big pairs of pants, China&rsquo;s top cities are famously full of curious monuments to architectural ambition. But as land prices in the main metropolises have shot into the stratosphere, developers have been scrambling to buy up plots in the country&rsquo;s second and third-tier cities, spawning a new generation of delirious plans in the provinces.</p></em><br /><br /><p><em>"From Harbin &ldquo;City of Music&rdquo; to Dezhou &ldquo;Solar Valley&rdquo;, provincial capitals are branding themselves as themed enclaves of culture and industry to attract inward investment, and commissioning scores of bold buildings to match."</em></p> https://archinect.com/news/article/149995806/using-architecture-to-combat-air-pollution Using architecture to combat air pollution Nicholas Korody 2017-03-07T13:11:00-05:00 >2017-03-11T11:03:53-05:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/2f/2fqdm39mw9cj03a5.jpg" width="650" height="366" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Birds fly in and out of the eight-storey "Green Office Building" in Shenzhen, China, because a third of its walls are completely open to the air. It's a clever natural design that enables the building to stay cool without air conditioners. Across town, in a vast campus known as the "Low Carbon Park", mist is sprayed into the air to cool the streets down and remove dust.</p></em><br /><br /><p><em>Experiments like these are appearing across China's cities, as part of a devolution of power designed to clean up smoggy air and meet energy targets to tackle climate change.</em></p> https://archinect.com/news/article/149992403/mcgregor-coxall-to-design-bird-airport-wetland-park-in-tianjin McGregor Coxall to design “bird airport” wetland park in Tianjin Justine Testado 2017-02-16T21:12:00-05:00 >2017-02-21T18:49:29-05:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/ru/ruji34q138civb0t.jpg" width="650" height="366" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Australian practice McGregor Coxall had the winning scheme to transform a degenerate landfill site into a new migratory-bird wetland sanctuary park in Tianjin, China. The Asian Development Bank and the Port of Tianjin co-launched the park design competition in response to the increasing loss of critical bird habitats and declining shorebird populations in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, which an estimated 50 million migratory shorebirds use every year. The EAAF extends to Alaska and Russia's Taimyr Peninsula in the north, East Asia and parts of Southeast Asia, and Australia and New Zealand in the south.</p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/as/asdlnm9zl6q6c748.jpg"><br><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/t2/t29mky7ig0h0nddu.jpg"></p><p>As a pilot project in China's national <a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149973118/the-absorbing-design-of-china-s-anti-flood-sponge-cities" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">sponge city program</a>, the project in the Lingang region is a 60-hectare masterplan of constructed wetlands, parkland, and urban forest.</p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/ru/ruji34q138civb0t.jpg"><br><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/lr/lrl6lmuylvk9k2rp.jpg"><br><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/6m/6m1wmicr9z9s9nhe.jpg"></p><p>Described as a &ldquo;bird airport&rdquo; by the architects, the wetland sanctuary will allow weary migratory birds to feed and rest, while human visitors can check out the Water Pavilion education and research center or t...</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/149986180/shenzhen-s-design-society-to-feature-v-a-gallery-for-its-october-2017-opening Shenzhen's Design Society to feature V&A gallery for its October 2017 opening Julia Ingalls 2017-01-12T13:38:00-05:00 >2017-01-18T00:36:53-05:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/k2/k2vy2ey0xx6g7imp.jpg" width="625" height="391" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>As brand-new collaborations go, the Shenzhen Design Society's choice to feature London's V&amp;A gallery as part of its cultural hub opening this October isn't too shocking, unless you consider that galleries of Chinese art and photography aren't necessarily a common feature of the global art world circuit. The inclusion of the gallery is partly a tribute to the V&amp;A's numerous exhibitions that showcased Chinese culture in Europe, including one of the first exhibitions on contemporary Chinese film and photography in 2005 (!).&nbsp;According to <a href="http://www.lonelyplanet.com/news/2017/01/03/shenzhen-design-society/#ixzz4VZcDY8bh" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Lonely Planet</a>, the hub's goal is to "focus on the history of groundbreaking design, with the aim of opening a dialogue on how design can be a catalyst for social change."</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/149984722/smog-continues-to-choke-beijing Smog continues to choke Beijing Nicholas Korody 2017-01-04T13:18:00-05:00 >2017-01-05T16:18:09-05:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/c0/c07cl6n40myx0oqh.jpg" width="650" height="433" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>The Chinese capital issued its highest red fog alert for a second day on Wednesday, keeping highways closed in and around the city which is already under a smog alert after weeks of choking winter pollution. China's weather bureau warned of visibility of less than 50 meters in some areas, leading many airports to cancel flights.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Air pollution is one of the most significant public health issues facing major cities around the world. Find out more here:</p><ul><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149951667/working-indoors-not-enough-to-protect-you-from-air-pollution-according-to-new-study" target="_blank">Working indoors not enough to protect you from air pollution, according to new study</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149941633/these-are-the-most-polluted-cities-in-the-us" target="_blank">These are the most-polluted cities in the US</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/143127994/reducing-turin-s-smog-with-free-public-transit" target="_blank">Reducing Turin's smog with free public transit</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/135341282/why-hypoallergenic-landscaping-needs-more-priority-in-urban-planning" target="_blank">Why hypoallergenic landscaping needs more priority in urban planning</a></li></ul> https://archinect.com/news/article/149984176/the-world-s-highest-bridge-opens-in-china The ‘world’s highest bridge’ opens in China Alexander Walter 2016-12-30T13:18:00-05:00 >2016-12-30T13:20:59-05:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/f5/f5yp6ld7trx7cgpv.jpg" width="650" height="433" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>The world&rsquo;s highest bridge officially opened Thursday in China, spanning a gorge that&rsquo;s almost 2,000 feet deep. The Beipanjiang Bridge in southwest China took three years to build, and cost $146.7 million. The four-lane structure stands 1,854 feet above the Beipan River below. [...] Technically, France&rsquo;s Millau Viaduct bridge still holds the title of world&rsquo;s tallest bridge, thanks to the height of its towers rising from the valley floor. But its road bed is a mere 890 feet above the ground.</p></em><br /><br /><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/hu/huugpxgselkkcr87.jpg"></p><p>&nbsp;</p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/0d/0dl4cdcmll6hwuvt.jpg"></p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/mw/mw7y2a5adxtgt5n8.jpg"></p><p><em>Photos by&nbsp;Eric Sakowski (Illustration of the completed bridge by Jon Fether, Jesus Catalan, Eric Sakowski); Images via <a href="http://www.highestbridges.com/wiki/index.php?title=Beipanjiang_Bridge_Duge" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">HighestBridges.com</a>.</em></p><p>Related stories in the Archinect news:</p><ul><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149968334/china-s-record-breaking-glass-bridge-already-closed-again-after-two-weeks" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">China's record-breaking glass bridge already closed again after two weeks</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149965286/world-s-longest-and-highest-glass-bridge-opens-in-china" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">World's longest and highest glass bridge opens in China</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149975398/next-architects-design-a-swooping-mobius-strip-bridge-for-changsha-china" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">NEXT Architects design a swooping "Mobius strip" bridge for Changsha, China</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149960423/a-look-at-penda-s-elegant-san-shan-bridge" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">A look at penda's elegant San Shan Bridge</a></li></ul> https://archinect.com/news/article/149983656/another-airpocalypse-strikes-china Another "airpocalypse" strikes China Nicholas Korody 2016-12-22T12:23:00-05:00 >2016-12-22T12:37:33-05:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/b2/b247l8tw6venyw7g.jpg" width="650" height="434" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Tens of thousands of &ldquo;smog refugees&rdquo; have reportedly fled China&rsquo;s pollution-stricken north after the country was hit by its latest &ldquo;airpocalyse&rdquo; forcing almost half a billion people to live under a blanket of toxic fumes. Huge swaths of north and central China have been living under a pollution &ldquo;red alert&rdquo; since last Friday when a dangerous cocktail of pollutants transformed the skies into a yellow and charcoal-tinted haze.</p></em><br /><br /><p>According to Greenpeace, the total number of afflicted people equals the populations of the United States, Canada and Mexico combined.</p><p>Air pollution is a major problem that affects nearly every city in the world. Find out more here:</p><ul><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149951667/working-indoors-not-enough-to-protect-you-from-air-pollution-according-to-new-study" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Working indoors not enough to protect you from air pollution, according to new study</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149941633/these-are-the-most-polluted-cities-in-the-us" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">These are the most-polluted cities in the US</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/143127994/reducing-turin-s-smog-with-free-public-transit" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Reducing Turin's smog with free public transit</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/135341282/why-hypoallergenic-landscaping-needs-more-priority-in-urban-planning" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Why hypoallergenic landscaping needs more priority in urban planning</a></li></ul> https://archinect.com/news/article/149983413/china-will-build-modular-housing-factories-in-the-uk-aiming-to-produce-25-000-homes-per-year China will build modular housing factories in the UK, aiming to produce 25,000 homes per year Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2016-12-20T13:00:00-05:00 >2016-12-21T15:03:17-05:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/uz/uzxooguffkhmdi7b.jpg" width="650" height="406" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>The six planned factories will use British light gauge steel framing to produce panelised components for residential developments that are &ldquo;at least 75% off-grid&rdquo; thanks to solar power and energy efficient design, renewables developer Welink said in announcing the joint venture today (19 December). [...] The UK government greeted the news enthusiastically, as it tries to lure innovative entrants to the UK housing market to help it deliver its objective of 1 million new homes by 2020.</p></em><br /><br /><p>More pre-fab on Archinect:</p><ul><li><a title="SHoP-designed Brooklyn tower &ndash; now world's tallest modular building &ndash; opens its doors" href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149979856/shop-designed-brooklyn-tower-now-world-s-tallest-modular-building-opens-its-doors" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">SHoP-designed Brooklyn tower &ndash; now world's tallest modular building &ndash; opens its doors</a></li><li><a title="Jean Nouvel's prefab 'Simple' home can be reconfigured from the inside out" href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149974727/jean-nouvel-s-prefab-simple-home-can-be-reconfigured-from-the-inside-out" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Jean Nouvel's prefab 'Simple' home can be reconfigured from the inside out</a></li><li><a title="To solve a housing crisis, invest more in modular construction" href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149958641/to-solve-a-housing-crisis-invest-more-in-modular-construction" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">To solve a housing crisis, invest more in modular construction</a></li><li><a title="A Parisian architect's plan to solve housing shortages by adding pre-fab houses to existing structures" href="http://archinect.com/news/article/147884890/a-parisian-architect-s-plan-to-solve-housing-shortages-by-adding-pre-fab-houses-to-existing-structures" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">A Parisian architect's plan to solve housing shortages by adding pre-fab houses to existing structures</a></li></ul> https://archinect.com/news/article/149982124/whatever-happened-to-china-s-futuristic-traffic-elevated-bus Whatever happened to China's futuristic Traffic Elevated Bus? Alexander Walter 2016-12-09T13:32:00-05:00 >2016-12-13T17:44:52-05:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/t7/t7l0yk4abah8dqq6.jpg" width="640" height="413" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>China's once-celebrated Traffic Elevated Bus (TEB) has been left abandoned in the middle of a Hebei city road, not having moved once in over two months. Originally touted as the futuristic solution to urban traffic jams, the "straddling bus" is currently causing them. A local reporter recently checked up on "the future of public transportation" at its testing site in Qinhuangdao, only to find it forgotten in a rusted garage, covered in dust.</p></em><br /><br /><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/yz/yz6vllssbwzv23nu.jpg"></p><p><em>"To test its invention, the company actually leased part of a city road in Qinhuangdao. Since the bus now remains exactly where it was abandoned , it continues to block three lanes of traffic, annoying residents to no end."</em></p><p>The 'road-straddling bus' previously in the Archinect news:&nbsp;<a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149961324/public-transit-boon-or-boondoggle-china-tests-out-its-road-straddling-bus" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Public transit boon or boondoggle? China tests out its road-straddling bus</a></p> https://archinect.com/news/article/149980651/coop-himmel-b-lau-completes-work-on-the-museum-of-contemporary-art-planning-exhibition-in-shenzhen COOP HIMMEL(B)LAU completes work on the Museum of Contemporary Art & Planning Exhibition in Shenzhen Nicholas Korody 2016-11-29T13:30:00-05:00 >2016-12-07T00:43:00-05:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/85/85hjhn8vr752muax.jpg" width="650" height="387" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p><a href="http://archinect.com/firms/cover/2739/coop-himmelb-l-au" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">COOP HIMMELB(L)AU</a> has completed work on the Museum of Contemporary Art &amp; Planning Exhibition (MOCAPE), a major new cultural center in the Futian Cultural District of Shenzhen. The &ldquo;monolithic&rdquo; structure houses two separate institutions, the Museum of Contemporary Art and the Planning Exhibition, under one roof, serving as a &ldquo;cultural meeting point and a venue for architectural exhibitions&rdquo;. The project completes the eastern part of a major master plan for central Shenzhen.</p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/xt/xte7dlixixf4458n.jpg"></p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/rt/rtcrk1opw0h5s2zs.jpg"></p><p>From the architects:</p><p><em>Both museums are designed as separate entities emphasizing their individual functional and artistic requirements and yet are merged in a monolithic body surrounded by a multifunctional facade. This transparent facade and a sophisticated internal lighting concept allow a deep view into the joint entrance and transitional areas between the buildings. From the inside, visitors are granted an unhindered view onto the city suggesting they are somewhere in a gently shaded outdoor area, an impression e...</em></p> https://archinect.com/news/article/149980470/74-reported-dead-after-construction-scaffolding-collapses-in-eastern-china 74 reported dead after construction scaffolding collapses in eastern China Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2016-11-28T13:44:00-05:00 >2016-12-07T00:24:03-05:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/l5/l5m9gbopmgn3a4dq.jpg" width="650" height="433" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>The cooling tower was being built in the city of Fengcheng in Jiangxi province when the scaffolding tumbled down [...] Chinese President Xi Jinping urged local governments to learn from the accident and hold those responsible accountable. [...] China has suffered several major work-safety accidents in recent years blamed on weak regulatory oversight, systemic corruption and pressure to boost production amid a slowing economy.</p></em><br /><br /><p>According to the&nbsp;<em>Associated Press</em>, the collapse is "the country's worst work-safety accident in over two years." The cause is currently under investigation.</p><p>Related on Archinect:</p><ul><li><a title="Five dead after eight metre concrete wall collapses in Birmingham, England" href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149956616/five-dead-after-eight-metre-concrete-wall-collapses-in-birmingham-england" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Five dead after eight metre concrete wall collapses in Birmingham, England</a></li><li><a title="Berkeley balcony collapse investigation: no criminal charges from the DA, but five contractors could face license revocation" href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149941443/berkeley-balcony-collapse-investigation-no-criminal-charges-from-the-da-but-five-contractors-could-face-license-revocation" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Berkeley balcony collapse investigation: no criminal charges from the DA, but five contractors could face license revocation</a></li><li><a title='Why cranes keep collapsing, despite "sophisticated equipment"' href="http://archinect.com/news/article/149815775/why-cranes-keep-collapsing-despite-sophisticated-equipment" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Why cranes keep collapsing, despite "sophisticated equipment"</a></li><li><a title="Developer and architects of collapsed Taiwan apartment building arrested" href="http://archinect.com/news/article/147884892/developer-and-architects-of-collapsed-taiwan-apartment-building-arrested" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Developer and architects of collapsed Taiwan apartment building arrested</a></li></ul> https://archinect.com/news/article/149976145/a-new-foster-partners-designed-university-campus-opens-in-shenzhen A new Foster + Partners-designed university campus opens in Shenzhen Nicholas Korody 2016-11-01T13:06:00-04:00 >2016-11-06T23:10:23-05:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/xj/xjjirh9pz3vrmkx2.jpg" width="650" height="434" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>On the eastern edge of Shenzhen, a new university campus designed by Foster + Partners just opened. The China Resources University, a 55,000 sq. meter project, is part of a larger mixed-used development headed by the London-headquartered firm.</p><p>According the press release, the campus sits on a hill with sweeping views of the South China Sea. Five teaching buildings and an &ldquo;innovation centre&rdquo; line a central boulevard leading to a main auditorium building that contains a large lecture hall. The campus also includes a library, more auditoria, a bar, gym, and student residences.</p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/vy/vyjn0x1x3x6pyzmj.jpg"></p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/f3/f3c6lip5ximp9gjo.jpg">&ldquo;The idea was to create a cascading complex of buildings and spaces - a series of teaching and living spaces, terraces and informal streets that encourage interaction and a sense of wellbeing,&rdquo; states Chris Bubb, a partner at Foster + Partners.</p><p>The buildings share a palette of materials: fair-faced concrete, bronze-colored cladding, and clay brick. The clay bricks are one of the signature design elements of the proj...</p> https://archinect.com/news/article/149976141/despite-recent-territorial-disputes-over-the-south-china-sea-a-chinese-company-has-been-awarded-a-major-contract-to-build-artificial-islands-off-the-coast-of-the-philippines Despite recent territorial disputes over the South China Sea, a Chinese company has been awarded a major contract to build artificial islands off the coast of the Philippines Nicholas Korody 2016-11-01T12:41:00-04:00 >2016-11-01T12:41:44-04:00 <img src="https://d38w84nuu9j2kr.cloudfront.net/images/650x/6x/6xlw9jlw3o2i3op9.jpg" width="650" height="489" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Located on the eastern edge of the body of water commonly referred to in English as the South China Sea, the Philippines is among the countries that dispute China&rsquo;s claim to the area and its islands. Earlier this year, a Hague-based tribunal, constituted under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, ruled that China has no historical claim or sovereign rights to the islands in a case brought by the Philippines against the People&rsquo;s Republic of China.</p><p>But the Philippines, under the leadership of the controversial President Rodrigo Duterte, has pivoted away from its relationship with the United States and towards China. Now, following a state visit by Duterte to Beijing, a state-owned Chinese company named CCCC Dredging has received a major contract to build the Philippines its own artificial islands.</p><p><img title="" alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/650x/ev/ev72goiypvcmhfri.jpg"></p><p>As reported by the state-owned Chinese paper <em><a href="http://en.people.cn/n3/2016/1025/c90000-9132369.html" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">People&rsquo;s Daily</a>, </em>the Philippines will gain four artificial islands off the coast of Davao City&mdash;incidentally where Duterte served as ...</p>