The proposed housing project aims to recover the scale of the main volumes that define the historic widening of “Vallecas”, upgrading the construction and shape to the actual technology and densities.
We seek a volumetric arrangement of the building with its surroundings, through cuts in the front volume; we manage to enhance the qualities of the rear volume. Achieving, thanks to this contrast between volumes a double quality (function): aesthetic and functional.
It is essential to give shape to this facade in order to adapt to the urban conditions of the site and thereby serve as a transition between the existing typologies (low-rise buildings, 4-5 floors) and the new one that seek an environmental improvement (high altitude, 8-9 plants).
The plot has a marked longitudinality, therefore we seek to fragment this big volume with these cuts, which will be used as common spaces for residents.
Visually he façade is divided into seven rectangles at 5 different altitudes in order to visually adapt the final volume with the surrounding volumes, seeking to recover the domestic urban layout, closer to pedestrians, avoiding massive linear facades that have distorted part of the neighborhood.
In the case of the back volume this dented ending of the volume occurs in its lower part, fitting with the design of the park and urban spaces.
Looking for a new understanding of the common spaces, not as a residual space, but as an essential space of the project, which adapts its self to the functional needs of each area, and whose dimensions emphasize the value of these spaces.
With a double quality
As determining climatic factor all flats have double orientation and allow cross ventilation. This ventilation and views are controlled by a lattice, pivoting panels and sliding panels depending on the façade and its orientation. These different skins surround the building providing a different character to each facade, according to the bioclimatic needs.
The climate control is produced by using a reversible skin (facade “Chameleon”) in the southeast. Formed by two tone pivoting panels (black and white), varying their position in order to absorb solar radiation (black for winter) or protect against this (white for summer).
Therefore, the gain of cold and heat is complemented by the thermal inertia of these materials facade.
The design of the volume
We started from a pure longitudinal volume which we then divided into two with the purpose of optimizing the arrangement of the flats.
The building is fragmented, rising on a continuous base, carved (visually semipermeable), which unifies the plot.
All these decisions of "cutting" the facade, as well as having a conceptual aim, they are functional and bioclimatically effective.
When warm air flows through the vegetation on the ground floor, it undergoes evaporative cooling and rises through the volumes forced by the suction force generated by the solar chimneys.
Thanks to the permeability in the areas of transition, this air rises to the roof generating cross ventilation both between blocks, and in each flat.
The housing units occupy the whole width of each volume, stimulating cross ventilation and double orientation.
The housing units are arranged arround a central space (livingroom) following a module to which consecutively other modules are added in order to generate different typologies with 1, 2 and 3 bedrooms.
It is articulated in three main areas, which can be grouped into two areas, day and night.
The balcony is thought as a visual and spatial extension of the flats (Living room area), bounded by a small bench. This is designed as a lightweight gateway that provides continuity to the facade.
The public space design pretends to adapt itself to the existing topography. The base emerges and it is carved up into the plot till it finally vanishes in the public space being able to connect all of the site accesses and spaces to the housing units, through a rich spatial transition within the project.
The gardens raise creating elevated resting places with low walls, benches, plant containers, etc.., generating an artificial topography that frames walking paths.
The dual character of the building results in a double material setting.
Urban Facade: Facade chameleon.
Double inner skin: bioclimatic and functional.
Rear facade: relationship with the outside.
Based on the same modulation, the facade cladding varies with the needs of each orientation employing horizontal or vertical blinds, opaque or see-through panels.
Facade chameleon: continuous texture, variable, reversible...
With a great variety of nuances depending on the position of the panels. Changing in concordance to the bioclimatic needs of each season.
Varies such as nature would do in each season.
Double inner skin (bioclimatic)
One is Transparent, designed from big windows which benefit from the solar radiation (solar chimneys) and reflect light into the interior of the housing units.
The other one is composed from sliding lattices controlled by the users according to their needs of solar radiation and the amount of privacy they are willing.
Formed by large windows that allow the entry of light (northern orientation) and a visual connection between the housing units and the park. Solar protection (on the western orientation) is achieved by sliding panels.
Status: Competition Entry
Location: Madrid, ES