Archinect - News 2015-03-30T02:12:02-04:00 Scientists Create New (and Cheap!) Aluminum-Iron Alloy Nicholas Korody 2015-02-09T19:55:00-05:00 >2015-02-11T10:59:45-05:00 <img src="" width="514" height="289" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>By manipulating the structure of steel on a nanometre scale, [Hansoo Kim and his colleagues at the Pohang University of Science and Technology in South Korea] (have) produced a material which has the strength and the lightness of titanium alloys but will, when produced at scale, cost a tenth as much.</p></em><br /><br /><p>The new, potentially-revolutionary alloy utilizes nickel, in addition to aluminum and iron, to create a metal that is as strong as steel but much lighter and cheaper. The scientists created the alloy using nanotechnology to manipulate the structure of steel on a minute level.</p><p>Noting the decrease in steel-usage over the last decade, the scientists hope the new alloy could fill that market, potentially being used for cars as well as even aircrafts. Any ideas on how a lightweight, strong and cheap steel could be utilized architecturally?</p> Berkeley researchers solve the mystery of the ultra-strong and durable ancient Roman concrete Archinect 2014-12-19T18:10:00-05:00 >2014-12-27T21:48:08-05:00 <img src="" width="514" height="414" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>The mortar resists microcracking through in situ crystallization of platy str&auml;tlingite, a durable calcium-alumino-silicate mineral that reinforces interfacial zones and the cementitious matrix. The dense intergrowths of the platy crystals obstruct crack propagation and preserve cohesion at the micron scale, which in turn enables the concrete to maintain its chemical resilience and structural integrity in a seismically active environment at the millennial scale.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html><head><meta></head></html> The Brain on Architecture Alexander Walter 2014-11-10T13:47:00-05:00 >2014-11-12T23:09:04-05:00 <img src="" width="514" height="343" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>The provisional conclusions of the study are that the brain behaves differently when exposed to contemplative and non-contemplative buildings, contemplative states elicited through &ldquo;architectural aesthetics&rdquo; are similar to the contemplation of traditional meditation in some ways, and different in other ways, and, finally, that &ldquo;architectural design matters.&rdquo;</p></em><br /><br /><p>Related: <a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">AfterShock #4: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Neuroscientific Architecture Research</a></p> 2014 ONE Prize “Smart Dock” results reveal two first-prize winners Justine Testado 2014-10-29T21:00:00-04:00 >2014-10-30T15:21:05-04:00 <img src="" width="514" height="250" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Interestingly enough, the ONE Prize "Smart Dock" competition has two 1st prize winners for 2014. Organized by Terreform ONE, this year's theme had participants propose a new design and science educational facility for the renovated Building 128 in the Brooklyn Navy Yard. The program of the collaborative educational facility will also include a public outreach center for socio-ecological design as well as spaces for lectures, events, and design studios for about 30 graduate students.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Out of 92 teams from 22 countries, the jury&nbsp;&mdash; chaired by Christian Hubert of Christian Hubert Studio and Chair of Terreform ONE&nbsp;&mdash; awarded two 1st prize winners, one 3rd prize winner, and one honorable mention.</p><p><strong>1st Prize ($3500): <em>THE LUCENT CUBE</em></strong><br>By &ldquo;CAD monkeys" - Yun Wan, Silvia Lopes, Balazs Fekete | London, UK</p><p><img title="" alt="" src=""></p><p><strong>1st PRIZE ($3500): <em>SELF GROWING LAB</em></strong><br>By Diaz Paunetto Arquitectos, PSC: Victor Diaz, Ariel Santiago, Carlos Garcia, Danniely Staback, Nestor Lebron | San Juan, Puerto Rico.</p><p><img title="" alt="" src=""></p><p><strong>3rd PRIZE ($1000): <em>COL-LAB</em></strong><br>By DDEC: Jaehun Woo, Youra Cho, Sang Hoon Park | Seoul, South Korea.</p><p><img title="" alt="" src=""></p><p><strong>Honorable Mention: <em>SKOOL HAUS</em></strong><br>By Nikole Bouchard - Nikole Bouchard, Vanessa Moon | Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.</p><p><img title="" alt="" src=""></p><p>Head over to <a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Bustler</a> for more details.</p> What makes a building sacred? Alexander Walter 2014-10-22T13:47:00-04:00 >2014-10-29T22:08:10-04:00 <img src="" width="514" height="322" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>The new science of neuroaesthetics [...] tells us much about the way pure form is dealt with by the brain. [...] V S Ramachandran, a neuroscientist at the University of California, San Diego, and William Hirstein, a philosopher at Elmhurst College in Illinois, argue that we are innately attuned to recognise things as unified objects &ndash; such that we find brushstrokes or architectural features that can be mentally assembled into a coherent whole more beautiful.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Related Archinect Feature: <a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">AfterShock #4: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Neuroscientific Architecture Research</a></p> Can cloud-seeding clear Singapore's skies? Nicholas Korody 2014-09-17T12:15:00-04:00 >2014-09-24T19:07:16-04:00 <img src="" width="514" height="320" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Indonesia is preparing cloud-seeding operations in an effort to combat a haze of air pollution blanketing neighbouring Singapore. Pollution levels were "moderate" levels on Tuesday morning, according to the pollution standard index, a day after hitting "unhealthy" levels. The worst affected parts of the island are in the west and closest to Indonesia. The haze has become an annual event in this part of Southeast Asia, as farmers illegally burn forest or plantation areas to clear land.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html><head><meta></head></html> Recently-Discovered Underwater Methane Leaks Contribute to Global Warming Nicholas Korody 2014-08-26T18:30:00-04:00 >2014-08-26T19:16:09-04:00 <img src="" width="514" height="324" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Scientists have recently discovered deep deposits of a powerful warming gas leaking into the ocean from previously hidden vents just off North America's East Coast, kicking up underwater carbon dioxide levels [...] Most of the vents are located about 1,600 feet down, the perfect spot for the ocean's temperature and water pressure to combine and create an oozing mix of ice and methane gas, a powerful substance with an impact on global warming that's 20 times more damaging than that of [CO2].</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html><head><meta></head></html> What ‘urban physics’ could tell us about how cities work Alexander Walter 2014-07-28T14:40:00-04:00 >2014-07-28T14:43:03-04:00 <img src="" width="514" height="330" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>What does a city look like? If you&rsquo;re walking down the street, perhaps it looks like people and storefronts. Viewed from higher up, patterns begin to emerge: A three-dimensional grid of buildings divided by alleys, streets, and sidewalks, nearly flat in some places and scraping the sky in others. Pull back far enough, and the city starts to look like something else entirely: a cluster of molecules. At least, that&rsquo;s what it looks like to Franz-Josef Ulm, an engineering professor [...].</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html><head><meta></head></html> Temple University Physicist proposes three 1,000-foot walls to tornado-proof Midwest Archinect 2014-06-30T20:31:00-04:00 >2014-07-01T18:17:23-04:00 <img src="" width="514" height="1160" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>In a paper he recently published in the International Journal of Modern Physics B, Tao points to two regions of China... that have a similar geographic location as the Midwest&mdash;but far fewer tornadoes. The difference, he says, is that China's plains are surrounded by three east-west mountain ranges, which slow down passing winds enough to prevent tornados from forming. Tao, then, is essentially suggesting we build mountain range-sized walls across Tornado Alley...</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html><head><meta></head></html> Scientists Develop Technique to Improve Flexible, Conductive, Transparent Glass Nicholas Korody 2014-06-26T19:01:00-04:00 >2014-07-02T09:23:09-04:00 <img src="" width="514" height="343" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>A new technique developed by a Binghamton University physicist and his colleagues will improve the quality of flexible, conductive, transparent glass. (The sort that's needed for Minority Report-style giant computer displays.)[...] Creating a more reliable production process for a-IGZO will save electronics manufacturers money. It could also reduce energy use, as a fully transparent display can take advantage of ambient light and does not require as much backlighting.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Advances in technologies such as this one will enable glass to go beyond transparency and become screens, with the potential to radically change architecture and urbanism. A future in which windows, doors, and even walls could stream movies or display art is fast approaching.&nbsp;LED and LCD screens have already become ubiquitous in many cities for advertising. And in Beijing, <a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">screens are being used to display sunrises because air pollution is so bad that the skies are almost perpetually gray</a> &ndash; a reminder that cool technology doesn't alone make a for a sci-fi utopia.&nbsp;</p> When does the architecture begin? Archinect 2014-05-12T17:57:00-04:00 >2014-05-20T20:02:50-04:00 <img src="" width="514" height="288" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>MIT Prof. Mark Jarzombek on the notion of primitive, the worldwide evolution of the housing, and the fate of the native populations in the modern environment When does the architecture begin? How the pit house can explain the global migrations and links between the Navahos and first men in Europe? MIT Professor of the History and Theory of Architecture Mark Jarzombek clarifies the essence of the problem.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html><head><meta></head></html> The Quest to Measure the Brain's Response to Urban Design Archinect 2014-05-07T12:13:00-04:00 >2014-05-08T14:55:17-04:00 <img src="" width="514" height="342" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>We were participating in a little experiment trying to answer the question, &ldquo;How does the brain respond to the city?&rdquo; The headsets were recording second-by-second readings of our brain waves via Bluetooth to an app on the iPod. The resulting gigabyte of data, gathered from about 50 participants, will be aggregated into a visualization to be presented May 13 at Issue Project Room in Brooklyn. It&rsquo;s part of the Van Alen Institute&rsquo;s multiyear &ldquo;Elsewhere: Escape and the Urban Landscape&rdquo; project.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html><head><meta></head></html> Form, culture and scientific diversity kostatoskovic 2014-02-07T00:19:00-05:00 >2014-02-10T19:19:01-05:00 <img src="" width="514" height="471" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Today&rsquo;s technology is rooted in the work of Sir Isaac Newton. Contemporary physics&rsquo; paradox in resolving the difference between magnetism and electricity implies multiple truths and we wonder what drove Newton&rsquo;s work and what drove Einstein&rsquo;s?</p></em><br /><br /><p>I discuss how paradox, uncertainty, and static historical context in physics justifying technology informs the form follows function of material mission of the modernists. How do alternate sciences and cultures inform the relationship between architecture, form, technology, and person?</p> How the spaces around us dictate our health Archinect 2013-09-18T11:38:00-04:00 >2013-09-23T20:41:46-04:00 <img src="" width="296" height="586" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Well-designed places can promote health, and design professionals can create them. Health depends... on wholesome places, not just for individuals, but across entire communities, and health professionals can recognize and support them. Accordingly, two worlds need to come together: the world of design, in which architects, planners and their colleagues create places; and the world of health, in which doctors, public-health officials and their colleagues fight injury, illness and disability.</p></em><br /><br /><p> Howard Frumkin, dean of University of Washington&rsquo;s School of Public Health, and Daniel Friedman, Ph.D., architect and former dean of the UW College of Built Environments, discuss the importance of architects and health specialists working together to create healthier spaces.</p> The Real Reason Cities Are Centers of Innovation Archinect 2013-07-08T15:22:00-04:00 >2013-07-15T21:21:28-04:00 <img src="" width="500" height="327" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Pan and several colleagues argue that the underlying force that drives super-linear productivity in cities is the density with which we're able to form social ties. The larger your city, in other words, the more people you&rsquo;re likely to come into contact with. "If you think about productivity, it&rsquo;s all about ideas, information flows, how easily you can access ideas and opportunities," Pan says. "We believe that the interaction mechanism is what drives the productivity of the city."</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html><head><meta></head></html> Ancient Roman Concrete Is About to Revolutionize Modern Architecture Archinect 2013-06-17T15:39:00-04:00 >2013-06-18T08:14:34-04:00 <img src="" width="514" height="343" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>After 2,000 years, a long-lost secret behind the creation of one of the world&rsquo;s most durable man-made creations ever&mdash;Roman concrete&mdash;has finally been discovered by an international team of scientists, and it may have a significant impact on how we build cities of the future.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html><head><meta></head></html> Henning Larsen Architects Releases New European Spallation Source (ESS) Video Alexander Walter 2013-04-17T20:15:00-04:00 >2013-04-22T18:57:29-04:00 <img src="" width="514" height="296" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Earlier this year in February, we reported that the architectual team Henning Larsen Architects + COBE + SLA had won the design competition for the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden&mdash;soon to become the world&rsquo;s largest and most advanced facility for neutron-based research. The architects have now released a video which provides insight on the ESS project, building, and surroundings.</p></em><br /><br /><p> <em>The competition team also includes the engineering partners Buro Happold, NNE Pharmaplan, and Transsolar.</em></p> <p> Previously: <a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Henning Larsen Architects, COBE and SLA to Design European Spallation Source (ESS)</a></p> Danforth W. Toan - the architect aboard the space station 45 years ago Archinect 2013-04-03T16:51:00-04:00 >2013-04-08T18:52:58-04:00 <img src="" width="480" height="320" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>In 1967, his architectural firm, Warner Burns Toan Lunde of 724 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, won a contract to advise the Grumman Corporation of Bethpage, N.Y., for what would eventually be Grumman&rsquo;s bid to construct an orbiting space station. Mr. Toan worked on the project for the next 20 years, until Grumman was bypassed as a prime contractor by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html><head><meta></head></html> Henning Larsen Architects, COBE and SLA to Design European Spallation Source (ESS) Alexander Walter 2013-02-28T14:17:00-05:00 >2013-04-17T20:23:35-04:00 <img src="" width="514" height="514" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>In the international design competition for the European Spallation Source (ESS), in Lund, Sweden the architectual team consisting of Henning Larsen Architects, COBE, and SLA has emerged victoriously. The team also includes the engineering partners Buro Happold, NNE Pharmaplan, and Transsolar. [...] ESS will become the world's largest and most advanced facility for neutron-based research.</p></em><br /><br /><p> <em>The winning proposal beat out tough competition from international design heavy hitters like Foster + Partners, BIG, HOK, or Mecanoo.</em></p> <p> <strong>Update:</strong> <a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Henning Larsen Architects Releases New European Spallation Source (ESS) Video</a></p> Inside three vast halls Nam Henderson 2013-02-06T11:27:00-05:00 >2013-02-06T12:59:34-05:00 <img src="" width="514" height="289" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>As dark matter particles steam through the detector, scientists hope that a few will collide with the argon atoms. This will generate two flashes of light - one in the liquid argon and another in the gas - which will be detected by the receptors.</p></em><br /><br /><p> <img alt="" src=""></p> <p> Rebecca Morelle visits the Gran Sasso National Laboratory a man-made cavern, deep beneath a mountain, designed by scientists hoping to shed light on one of the most mysterious substances in our Universe - dark matter. Physicists are hoping to detect WIMPS (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles).</p> The world's greatest buildings provide a window on great math and great design Archinect 2013-02-04T17:56:00-05:00 >2013-02-12T16:40:04-05:00 <img src="" width="514" height="297" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Roof structures of this size and complexity cannot be built without an explicit geometry that can be expressed mathematically. Without such a mathematical model, it is not possible to calculate the loads, stresses, and rotational forces to which the vaults will be subjected and to estimate the impact of wind and temperature changes on their stability. Parabolas and ellipses were Utzon's first choices for the profiles of the vaults, but neither provided a buildable option.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html><head><meta></head></html> The Science Channel Peels a City Apart to Show How Structures Survive Disasters Archinect 2013-02-01T11:53:00-05:00 >2013-02-04T20:11:50-05:00 <img src="" width="514" height="289" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Science Channel&rsquo;s upcoming series, Strip the City, uses oversized CGI effects to take a very deep look into the engineering behind some of the most iconic municipalities and the potentially disastrous natural elements they must overcome. Working with architects, engineers and historians, the producers have unearthed the specific elements that help San Francisco&rsquo;s bridge survive tremors and Dubai&rsquo;s towering skyscrapers stand firm in soft, unstable desert sands.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html><head><meta></head></html> HOK Team Selected to Design New Global Hub for Biomedical Research in Italy Archinect 2012-11-29T11:48:00-05:00 >2012-12-03T18:58:46-05:00 <img src="" width="514" height="324" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p> HOK has been selected as lead architect for the Ri.MED Biomedical Research and Biotechnology Center (BRBC) near Palermo, Sicily, in Southern Italy. HOK&rsquo;s team was selected from a field of 14 entrants in an international design competition.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="" title=""></p> <p> Plans for the 334,000-square-foot (31,000-square-meter) facility were unveiled on Nov. 27 in Palermo, Sicily, in an event attended by Italian political leaders including Prime Minister Mario Monti and Rosario Crocetta, president of the Region of Sicily. Leaders from UPMC (University of Pittsburgh Medical Center), the University of Pittsburgh, the Ri.MED Foundation and HOK also attended the event.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="" title=""></p> <p> The $269 million (210 million-euro), world-class research facility will be a global hub for biomedical research and development. Managed by UPMC, the facility&rsquo;s focus on translational science will move research quickly from the lab to the marketplace. The ultimate goal is to prevent or cure diseases while improving the quality of life and life...</p> Architecture and the "corridors of the mind" Nam Henderson 2012-11-11T17:59:00-05:00 >2012-11-14T04:47:31-05:00 <img src="" width="514" height="340" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Architects, he explains, &ldquo;understand about aesthetics; they know about psychology. The next depth to which they can go is understanding the brain and how it works and why do people feel more comfortable in one space than another?&rdquo;</p></em><br /><br /><p> Emily Badger examines whether neuroscientists could be the next great architects. Her article features quotes from&nbsp;among&nbsp;others; sociologist and architect&nbsp;John Zeisel, architect Alison Whitelaw and neurobiologist Fred Gage who at a 2003 conference laid out how "<em>Changes in the environment change the brain, and therefore they change our behavior</em>". The almost 10-year-old Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture which held its first national conference this September, at the Salk Institute, in La Jolla, California, is dedicated to increasing research into, the intersection of the two seemingly disparate fields.</p> Plans to build $1billion ghost town in New Mexico desert delayed Archinect 2012-07-16T13:21:00-04:00 >2012-07-23T18:59:06-04:00 <img src="" width="514" height="281" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Pegasus, the company behind the scheme, had originally intended to build the huge, 15-square mile replica town near to Hobbs in the southwestern U.S. state but has postponed building work after struggling to find enough land for the project. The $1billion city (&pound;643million) with no residents had been billed as a testing ground for researchers developing products ranging from self-flushing toilets, intelligent traffic systems and next-generation wireless networks.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html><head><meta></head></html> Seeing the Building for the Trees Nam Henderson 2012-01-08T23:32:00-05:00 >2012-01-09T22:51:33-05:00 <img src="" width="514" height="448" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>A REVOLUTION in cognitive neuroscience is changing the kinds of experiments that scientists conduct, the kinds of questions economists ask and, increasingly, the ways that architects, landscape architects and urban designers shape our built environment. This revolution reveals that thought is less transparent to the thinker than it appears and that the mind is less rational than we believe and more associative than we know.</p></em><br /><br /><p> Architecture critic, Sarah Williams Goldhagen wrote a brief piece exploring the use&nbsp; of embodied metaphors in contemporary architecture. Looking at recent works by Junya Ishigami, J&uuml;rgen Mayer H., Zaha Hadid and Sanaa for instance, Goldhagen notes that the use of metaphors that allude to trees, river-like space or a habitable mountain-scape, is on the rise. While the possibilities of the ongoing revolution in our understanding of human cognition and their potential for shaping the design of our built environment are unknown she believes that the employment of such metaphors in such projects "<strong>point toward how the built environment could &mdash; and should &mdash; be radically reconceptualized around the fundamental workings of the human mind.</strong>"</p> TEDxJacksonHole - Nona Yehia & Jefferson Ellinger - New Architectures: Nature and Phenomena nonayehia 2011-12-05T17:05:06-05:00 >2011-12-08T09:16:02-05:00 <img src="" width="514" height="287" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p> Nona Yehia and Jefferson Ellinger established the architectural firm, Ellinger/Yehia Design LLC in 2003 to investigate links between architecture, landscape and technology. In 2004, the firm opened an office in Jackson Hole, Wyoming to further explore these inter-relationships.<br> Architects, artists, scientists and designers throughout the ages have been inspired by the beauty and elegance in nature; studying, imitating and attempting to recreate natural systems has shaped life as we know it. Today, the question is how natural phenomena can become instrumental in the design of new architectures that radically redefine our built environment.</p> BIG + OFF to Design New University Research Center in Paris Alexander Walter 2011-11-21T18:09:00-05:00 >2012-09-28T21:03:06-04:00 <img src="" width="514" height="380" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Danish and French architects BIG &amp; OFF, engineers Buro Happold, consultants Michel Forgue and environmental engineer Franck Boutte is the winning team to design the new 15,000 m2 research center for Sorbonne Universit&eacute; Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris. The winning team was honored as the best design among proposals from MVRDV, Lipsky Rollet, Mario Cucinella and Peripherique.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html><head><meta></head></html> Dynamic Performance of Nature by EB Office Alexander Walter 2011-11-21T14:53:10-05:00 >2011-11-21T14:54:55-05:00 <img src="" width="514" height="341" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Dynamic Performance of Nature is a permanent architectural media installation in the Leonardo Museum of Art, Science and Technology, located in Salt Lake City, Utah. DPoN engenders environmental perception in the museum&rsquo;s visitors by communicating global environmental information through a dynamic and interactive interface embedded in the material of the wall.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html><head><meta></head></html>