Archinect - News 2016-10-26T02:10:04-04:00 Brooklyn, say hello to your new neighbors! Alexander Walter 2016-08-24T18:10:00-04:00 >2016-08-25T16:53:31-04:00 <img src="" width="650" height="453" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>You&rsquo;ve always wanted to call Brooklyn home. But it&rsquo;s complicated. You&rsquo;re not really the pioneering type. Brooklyn can be rough around the edges. Amenities are lacking. We understand. Industrial-chic finishes are important in life. So are 25-year tax abatements. And European-style, car-sized parking turntables.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Failed Architecture takes a closer look at Brooklyn's wildly sprouting 'developer architecture':</p><p><img title="" alt="" src=""></p><p><img title="" alt="" src=""></p><p><img title="" alt="" src=""></p><p><img title="" alt="" src=""></p><p><img title="" alt="" src=""></p><p>Photographs by Cameron Blaylock. Find many more examples of <em>subtle contextualism</em> over on&nbsp;<a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"></a>.&nbsp;</p><p>Related stories in the Archinect news:</p><ul><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">5 myths about gentrification, according to a GSAPP urban planning professor</a></li><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">A tale of two parks: debate rages over a new plan for a "Maker Park" in Brooklyn</a></li><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">An apartment boom grows in Brooklyn</a></li></ul> A tragic tale of live-and-let-die development on Shanghai's Street of Eternal Happiness Alexander Walter 2016-08-03T17:00:00-04:00 >2016-08-03T17:07:01-04:00 <img src="" width="650" height="475" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>&ldquo;One day at around eight in the morning, I was returning from the market when six of the developer&rsquo;s thugs tackled me outside my home and pushed me into a car,&rdquo; remembers Xi. Several others, she says, climbed a ladder to her balcony. Xi says she screamed for her husband, but it was too late. There was a scuffle inside, and then black smoke poured out of their balcony window before the house went up in flames. Xi&rsquo;s husband burned to death, and the developer&rsquo;s men escaped.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Related stories in the Archinect news:</p><ul><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">How Chinese families are handling the country's ongoing mass evictions</a></li><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Photographer captures the changing face of Shanghai</a></li><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Now THAT's a skywalk! Jin Mao Tower to open world's highest fenceless, all transparent walkway in Shanghai</a></li></ul> Donald Trump is architecture's nightmare client Julia Ingalls 2016-08-03T13:50:00-04:00 >2016-09-18T21:25:48-04:00 <img src="" width="650" height="406" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Two weeks ago at the Republican National Convention, Donald Trump's daughter introduced him as a man who has overseen the construction of skyscrapers, thereby qualifying him to somehow take stead of the vastly more complex civic architecture of the United States. Never mind that Donald Trump doesn't necessarily <a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">pay the architects he hires</a>, making him less of an overseer and more of a cheap tyrant (with a terrible, reductive aesthetic sense, to boot). This tendency to inaccurately appropriate architecture is a theme within the Trump family&mdash;<a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Melania made up an entire degree</a>&mdash;but what Duo Dickinson notes over at <a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">CommonEdge</a> is that Trump's blowhardism is counter to what architecture is: notably, an exchange of ideas, and a conversation about how best to implement those ideas. As Duo writes:</p><p><em>Agreement with the Donald is being right, anything else puts you in the other side of him&mdash;wrong and disqualified; not a great place for an architect if he&rsquo;s your client and radically divisive even in a ...</em></p> "We can't sneer at developers": Herzog & de Meuron examine London's future Julia Ingalls 2016-06-16T12:35:00-04:00 >2016-06-18T22:42:47-04:00 <img src="" width="650" height="432" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>In London, though the Tate is now finished, there is other work to be done... "We can&rsquo;t sneer at developers," says Herzog. "They are the ones who will increasingly dominate the shaping of our cities. But we should try to convince them to add accessibility for everyone. To ask, can we do it better?"</p></em><br /><br /><p>Now that they've completed the <a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Tate Modern extension</a>, what's next for Herzog &amp; de Meuron? In this piece, trilingual biking-afocidionado Jacques Herzog speculates on the architectural future of London, and his firm's potential (developer-positive) role in it.&nbsp;</p><p><img title="" alt="" src=""></p><p>Herzog &amp; de Meuron, in the news:</p><ul><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Herzog &amp; De Meuron's Schaudepot opens at the Vitra Campus</a></li><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Herzog and de Meuron in conversation with Rowan Moore</a></li><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">In Tokyo, Brand-Name Stores by Brand-Name Architects</a></li></ul> Austin considering mandating affordable housing units in some areas Nicholas Korody 2016-05-24T20:06:00-04:00 >2016-06-01T01:14:19-04:00 <img src="" width="650" height="366" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>A City Council committee could take the first steps Tuesday toward mandating that developers include affordable units in new housing complexes to be built in several East Austin neighborhoods. The proposal by Council Member Greg Casar, who chairs the council&rsquo;s Planning and Neighborhoods Committee, comes as soaring rents have pushed poorer and minority residents out of the city.</p></em><br /><br /><p>The plan would mark a significant shift in direction from the current, incentive-based approach that allows developers to build larger buildings in exchange for including affordable housing units. As it stands now, developers can also pay a fee to the city's housing fund in order to build bigger buildings.</p><p>In related news:</p><ul><li><a href="" target="_blank">London's Bleak Housing</a></li><li><a href="" target="_blank">New York can't be what it used to be, thanks to zoning</a></li><li><a href="" target="_blank">The self-segregation of America's wealthiest class</a></li><li><a href="" target="_blank">LA has a housing crisis &ndash; but the problem isn't those fancy new towers</a></li></ul> Critic Mark Lamster on the dire state of architecture in Dallas (and most other American cities) Alexander Walter 2016-04-12T14:52:00-04:00 >2016-05-02T01:16:29-04:00 <img src="" width="650" height="366" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>bastardized visual language has become the de facto standard of Dallas residential architecture development. The explanation for its ever-increasing prevalence, however depressing, is fairly straightforward.&nbsp;Developers find something that&rsquo;s profitable and want to reproduce it. Risk-averse banks are happy to lend them money given their track record, at least in the short term. Architects, stuck with low budgets, tight schedules, and conservative developers, serve to please and follow convention.</p></em><br /><br /><p><em>"But Dallas architecture shouldn&rsquo;t be a joke, and it doesn&rsquo;t have to be. A look at recent developments in Los Angeles, a historically auto-centric city faced with similar&nbsp;growth challenges,&nbsp;suggests how Dallas might break the vicious cycle in which it is mired."</em></p><p>Related stories in the Archinect news:</p><ul><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Architecture Critic Mark Lamster: "We systemically encourage bad building."</a></li><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Does Houston's architecture lack poetry?</a></li><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Boston Mayor Marty Walsh goes up against boring architecture</a></li></ul> Frank Gehry's unsolicited plan for Beverly Hills mixed-use campus awaits city council agreement Justine Testado 2016-03-02T15:11:00-05:00 >2016-03-03T14:33:12-05:00 <img src="" width="650" height="367" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Earlier this month, developer Townscape Partners and Gehry Partners presented an unsolicited plan to the Beverly Hills City Council to build a huge mixed-use campus that would include hip office space, a five-star hotel, retail, and a three-acre public park on about seven acres of land...the council is expected to approve an agreement at their meeting tonight that should help this unexpected and enormous project take a big step forward.</p></em><br /><br /><p>You can find the full project staff report <a href=";clip_id=4712&amp;meta_id=283670" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">here</a>.</p><p>More recent news about Frank Gehry:</p><p><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Mayor Eric Garcetti on Frank Gehry's plans for the LA River: "a cooperative, collaborative, regional approach"</a></p><p><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Frank Gehry is the first architect to be awarded the Harvard Arts Medal</a></p><p><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Frank Gehry and Maya Lin find their ancestral roots on PBS</a></p><p><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Selling Cuba (Gehry's already there)</a></p> Foster + Partners-designed 3 Sutton Place shelved after developer defaults on loans Nicholas Korody 2016-03-01T16:52:00-05:00 >2016-03-01T17:12:40-05:00 <img src="" width="650" height="319" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>3 Sutton Place, a planned 950-foot-tall, 68-story Manhattan condo tower, won&rsquo;t be materializing along the East River. After defaulting on $128.8 million in loans from lender Gamma Real Estate, developer Bauhouse Group&lsquo;s site at 426-432 East 58th Street will face foreclosure sale February 29th. The site currently houses three contiguous five-story apartment buildings, which Bauhouse purchased to make way for the massive Foster + Partners-designed midtown skyscraper project.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Interested in other articles about Foster and Partners? Check out some of our past coverage:</p><ul><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Masdar abandons its dream of becoming the first zero-carbon city</a></li><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Norton Museum of Art breaks ground on Foster + Partners-designed expansion project</a></li><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">The selective amnesia of Foster + Partners' Maspero Triangle District Masterplan</a></li><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Norman Foster says he has "no power as an architect, none whatsoever" &ndash; only advocacy</a></li><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Foster + Partners, HOK among shortlisted for massive Palace of Westminster restoration project</a></li></ul> Developer and architects of collapsed Taiwan apartment building arrested Alexander Walter 2016-02-11T13:17:00-05:00 >2016-02-11T13:20:42-05:00 <img src="" width="650" height="425" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Three Taiwanese construction company executives have been detained on charges of professional negligence resulting in death following the collapse of an apartment building that killed dozens. The district prosecutor's office in the city of Tainan said [...] that Lin Ming-hui and architects Chang Kui-an and Cheng Chin-kui were suspected of having overseen shoddy construction of the 17-story Weiguan Golden Dragon building, which crashed onto its side following an earthquake Saturday.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Previously in the Archinect news:&nbsp;<a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Taiwan earthquake: tin cans found as fillers may have caused high-rise to collapse</a></p> Seattle's proposed 101-story 4/C Tower considered as too tall by the FAA Justine Testado 2016-01-06T14:05:00-05:00 >2016-01-08T12:57:37-05:00 <img src="" width="650" height="351" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>The proposed Fourth and Columbia Tower...would be a mixed-use office and residential tower rising up 1,111 feet above the street. It would be 101 stories, with two levels of retail shopping, four levels of above-grade parking, and six levels of office space. It would also play home to 350 hotel rooms, and 1,200 residential units...But being the tallest could be something [developer] Crescent Heights may not want to give up.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Previously on Archinect:</p><p><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Proposed Seattle Tower, designed by LMN Architects, could become the West Coast's tallest</a></p> New website on the deep web encourages architects to leak neighborhood-disrupting building plans Julia Ingalls 2015-09-09T18:34:00-04:00 >2015-09-12T19:11:19-04:00 <img src="" width="650" height="428" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>&ldquo;There are a lot of people working in architecture who are very frustrated with what&rsquo;s happening, but feel like they don&rsquo;t have a voice to speak out,&rdquo; said Sarah, another of Concrete Action&rsquo;s co-founders, who also wished to remain anonymous. &ldquo;We&rsquo;re hoping that this is going to give them an avenue to do that without worrying about losing their jobs or getting into trouble.&rdquo;</p></em><br /><br /><p>Architects who are dismayed by working on projects that tend to harm, not improve, the neighborhoods in which they are sited now have a secure whistleblowing option: U.K.-based <a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Concrete Action</a> allows architects to anonymously submit rent-inflating building plans to the public. The site, which started in response to a slew of development of <a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">high-rent projects in low income areas</a>, also helps the concerned citizen crack the often arcane and jargon-heavy <a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">city planning process</a>. Architects can use encrypted methods to submit copies of the plans and alert the public to just what developers are coveting, er, planning.</p><p><img title="" alt="" src=""></p> The Guardian reveals how developers play the planning system to get around affordable housing Alexander Walter 2015-06-26T18:49:00-04:00 >2015-06-28T10:09:27-04:00 <img src="" width="650" height="441" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Seen exclusively by the Guardian, the document sheds new light on why so little affordable housing is being built across England; why planning policy consistently fails to be enforced; and why property developers are now enjoying profits that exceed even those of the pre-crash housing bubble.</p></em><br /><br /><p>And the <a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">affordable housing</a> crisis is certainly not restricted to the greater London area as many recent headlines on Archinect show:</p><ul><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">No room for affordable housing in SF? Build it in Oakland</a></li><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">"We've got enough millionaires": George Lucas wants to build affordable housing on his own land</a></li><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Developers in California can be required to include low-income housing, courts declare</a></li><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Kevin Daly's Backyard BI(h)OME provides affordable housing for humans and wildlife</a></li><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Chicago Rethinks Rules for Developers to Increase Affordable Housing</a></li><li><a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">'Poor doors': not the worst thing about social housing</a></li></ul> Those hipster millennials might not be the true gentrifiers of U.S. neighborhoods Justine Testado 2015-06-23T15:55:00-04:00 >2015-07-04T22:13:05-04:00 <img src="" width="650" height="488" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Often, at least in America, we think of regular people as the agents of change&mdash;the artist, the boutique coffee shop owner, the tech startup. But as much as gentrification is an organic process, fueled by opportunity seekers and bargain hunters, it&rsquo;s developers and financiers who have become the savvy midwives of change. Once they detect the early signs of gentrification, they bring on the serious money.</p></em><br /><br /><p>More:</p><p><a title='"Eco-Gentrification," or the social ramifications of "urban greening"' href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">"Eco-Gentrification," or the social ramifications of "urban greening"</a></p><p><a title="Revisiting Sharon Zukin's &quot;Loft Living&quot; and NYC gentrification" href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Revisiting Sharon Zukin's "Loft Living" and NYC gentrification</a></p><p><a title="With gentrification, the end of racial segregation moves into LA's Highland Park neighborhood" href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">With gentrification, the end of racial segregation moves into LA's Highland Park neighborhood</a></p><p><a title="Amsterdam's &quot;ugly&quot; architecture from the 70s proves resilient against gentrification" href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Amsterdam's "ugly" architecture from the 70s proves resilient against gentrification</a></p><p><a title="So gentrification is just a myth after all?" href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">So gentrification is just a myth after all?</a></p> “New” Frank Lloyd Wright Home Found Miles Jaffe 2015-06-13T12:24:00-04:00 >2015-06-15T04:04:49-04:00 <img src="" width="650" height="488" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>the System-Built developer may indeed have constructed this home without Wright&rsquo;s knowledge</p></em><br /><br /><p>Alas, some thing never change.</p> Manhattan community board pushes moratorium on 600ft and higher construction Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2015-05-19T12:55:00-04:00 >2015-05-19T19:32:16-04:00 <img src="" width="620" height="372" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>"There's actually such a lack of transparency that it is difficult to understand what developers and property owners are actually planning ... There's no mechanism for us or the city for us to understand ahead of time what's in the planning" [...] The board ultimately wants Mayor Bill de Blasio to take steps to create more comprehensive zoning laws that would assess the impact of large towers on open space and mitigate any potential impacts, like shadows on Central Park.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Listen to the full report from WYNC below:</p><p></p> The new 5 over 1 Seattle, where "everything looks the same" Alexander Walter 2015-04-28T14:00:00-04:00 >2015-04-29T15:19:05-04:00 <img src="" width="550" height="440" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>There are ways to bring elegance to 5 over 1 structures, but it requires a high degree of skill and commitment. Only a very talented designer can take such a limited palette of materials and make the resulting building interesting, if not elegant. But developers must be willing to hire those skilled designers. Many are simply not interested. [...] Hence, the wildly uneven &mdash;&nbsp;and often uninspiring&nbsp;&mdash; architecture in Seattle today.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Similar tenor in other booming parts of the nation:</p><ul><li><a href="" target="_blank">Blair Kamin not impressed by Chicago's latest housing developments</a></li><li><a href="" target="_blank">Jeff Sheppard calls downtown Denver's new housing developments "meaningless, uninspiring"</a></li></ul> Snøhetta to take over SF development project near Civic Center Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-10-29T19:53:00-04:00 >2014-11-05T20:03:49-05:00 <img src="" width="650" height="417" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>This would be the first U.S. tower for Sn&oslash;hetta, founded in Norway but on the rise in the United States since being selected in 2004 to design the pavilion for the National Sept. 11 Memorial &amp; Museum. Sn&oslash;hetta will replace an even better-known architect for the corner: Richard Meier, the Pritzker Prize-winning designer of the Getty Center in Los Angeles, whose firm has been working on a tower in the same location since 2008.</p></em><br /><br /><p>The site in question is directly adjacent the Civic Center's metro stop on Market St., and a large part of the developer's plans revolve around shifting this existing stop one block north, to avoid (in the SFGate author's words) the "squalid even by neighborhood standards" area. The residential tower being built on the site, which includes condominiums with retail space on the ground floor, would account for its affordable housing requirements by building separate properties three blocks away.</p><p>Sn&oslash;hetta's other work in San Francisco includes&nbsp;<a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">SFMoMA's expansion</a>, which is currently under construction.</p> NYC's historic 190 Bowery part of massive buy-up by developer RFR Holdings Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-09-19T20:25:00-04:00 >2014-09-23T17:26:56-04:00 <img src="" width="600" height="419" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>RFR plans to spend $250 million on Manhattan land purchases, up to $500 million on office building deals and $100 million to $150 million more on retailing properties &mdash; all before the end of the year. [...] Perhaps the most under-the-radar purchase was 190 Bowery... Developers have been trying for years to buy the six-story Renaissance Revival structure, which appears abandoned, with blocked-off doorways, boarded-up windows and graffiti covering nearly all of the lower facade.</p></em><br /><br /><p>For some more context on 190 Bowery, check out <a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Wendy Goodman's 2008 profile of the family living there</a>.</p> The truth about property developers: they are ruining our cities Orhan Ayyüce 2014-09-18T13:03:00-04:00 >2014-09-24T19:34:53-04:00 <img src="" width="650" height="390" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Conditions that have been agreed are relentlessly renegotiated at reserved matters stage. Good architects are employed to win outline planning, then ditched for a cheaper alternative; high-quality materials are substituted for flimsy plastic panels &ndash; all in the name of viability.</p></em><br /><br /><p>The song remains the same, and you know your favorite Pritzker Prize'rs are involved in them.</p><p>It is usually the floodgate scheme;&nbsp;</p><p>&ldquo;Once an outline permission is granted, it makes it very difficult for us to refuse a scheme further down the line,&rdquo; says one officer. In Stratford City&rsquo;s&nbsp;<a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">&ldquo;International Quarter&rdquo;</a>, part of the promised spoils of the Olympic legacy, consented tower proposals have recently gained a substantial number of extra storeys. Similarly in Wandsworth, a proposed pair of towers have put on a growth spurt and lost their planned mix of uses, reverting entirely to high-end flats.</p><p>Next line of invasion is always, "we provide jobs."</p> The people designing your cities don’t care what you want. They’re planning for hipsters. Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-08-15T13:45:00-04:00 >2014-09-09T13:29:26-04:00 <img src="" width="640" height="426" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>current conventional wisdom embraces density, sky-high scrapers, vastly expanded mass transit and ever-smaller apartments. It reflects a desire to create an ideal locale for hipsters and older, sophisticated urban dwellers. [...] Overlooked, or even disdained, is what most middle-class residents of the metropolis actually want: home ownership, rapid access to employment throughout the metropolitan area, good schools and &ldquo;human scale&rdquo; neighborhoods.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html><head><meta></head></html> Hello Dubai-on-the-East-River HotSoup 2013-03-04T19:02:00-05:00 >2013-03-10T14:39:00-04:00 <img src="" width="650" height="488" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>In recent years developers putting up a forest of residential towers have been accused of turning the Brooklyn and Queens waterfront into Miami-on-the-East-River. With his new plan for the 11-acre Domino Sugar refinery in Williamsburg officially unveiled on Sunday, Jed Walentas has crafted something that might better be described as Dubai-on-the-East-River.</p></em><br /><br /><p> Audacious new waterfront development designed by SHoP unveiled in Brooklyn. Transforms derelict Domino Sugar refinery into 24/7 community with designs the likes of which New York has never seen.</p> 60-Story Twin Towers by SOM Break Ground in Manhattan HotSoup 2013-01-16T12:51:00-05:00 >2013-01-21T10:14:31-05:00 <img src="" width="650" height="841" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>&ldquo;With today&rsquo;s groundbreaking, we&rsquo;re taking a major step forward in the transformation and rebirth of the Far West Side of Manhattan,&rdquo; Mayor Michael Bloomberg said from the podium at the corner of 33rd Street and Ninth Avenue.</p></em><br /><br /><p> Hudson Yards is not the only megadevelopnment underway on Manhattan's Far West Side. Brookfield Properties (owners of the World Financial Center, Canary Wharf and Zuccotti Park), broke ground on Manhattan West, a 5.4-million-square foot development on a 5 acre site over a set of Penn Station rail road tracks. The centerpiece is two 60-story towers designed by SOM.</p> Reality Check: Developers React to MoMA’s Show, “Foreclosed: Rehousing the American Dream” Archinect 2012-03-27T00:44:00-04:00 >2012-03-27T08:16:58-04:00 <img src="" width="625" height="417" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Though the panelists agreed that the foreclosure crisis will lead to major changes in suburban development, they all thought new patterns are less likely to be brought about by a revised American dream than by economic and demographic factors. And all said it would be very difficult to change zoning laws to permit denser new development patterns, especially in existing &ldquo;inner-ring&rdquo; suburbs.</p></em><br /><br /><p> On Archinect: <a href="" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">The CRIT: Thoughts on MoMA's Foreclosed: Rehousing the American Dream</a></p> Why DC's Architecture Is So Boring Archinect 2011-11-09T12:02:08-05:00 >2011-11-24T09:05:52-05:00 <img src="" width="300" height="224" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Architects innovate through design, but developers also innovate by selecting architects and making decisions to invest in new neighborhoods or provide housing forms that they think other developers are neglecting. Although what developers do is not as obvious as architecture, that doesn&rsquo;t mean there aren&rsquo;t consequences to liming competition among them.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" ""> <html><head><meta></head></html>