Archinect - News 2016-05-26T12:37:57-04:00 http://archinect.com/news/article/147883279/u-s-says-computers-qualify-as-drivers-in-google-s-autonomous-vehicles-won-t-even-have-to-go-to-the-dmv U.S. says computers qualify as drivers in Google's autonomous vehicles; won't even have to go to the DMV Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2016-02-11T12:54:00-05:00 >2016-02-27T22:37:26-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/54/54yz68x38yyf095d.jpg" width="514" height="297" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>U.S. vehicle safety regulators have said the artificial intelligence system piloting a self-driving Google car could be considered the driver under federal law [...] "NHTSA will interpret 'driver' in the context of Google's described motor vehicle design as referring to the (self-driving system), and not to any of the vehicle occupants" [...] Google told NHTSA that the real danger is having auto safety features that could tempt humans to try to take control.</p></em><br /><br /><p>The technological and legal impediments to making self-driving cars a reality on U.S. roads seem to be falling away &ndash; and as the regulatory market opens for business, so may more competition, with Google and <a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/58027971/california-legalizes-driverless-cars" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">California</a> (which legalized self-driving cars in 2012) leading the way.</p><p>More on the development of autonomous vehicles:</p><ul><li><a title="The U.S. just got $4 billion to spend on self-driving cars" href="http://archinect.com/news/article/145806465/the-u-s-just-got-4-billion-to-spend-on-self-driving-cars" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">The U.S. just got $4 billion to spend on self-driving cars</a></li><li><a title="Think driverless cars will reduce traffic? Not so fast." href="http://archinect.com/news/article/141511613/think-driverless-cars-will-reduce-traffic-not-so-fast" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Think driverless cars will reduce traffic? Not so fast.</a></li><li><a title='"In LiDAR We Trust" &ndash; Poking the subconscious of autonomous vehicles with special guest Geoff Manaugh, on Archinect Sessions #43' href="http://archinect.com/news/article/141436229/in-lidar-we-trust-poking-the-subconscious-of-autonomous-vehicles-with-special-guest-geoff-manaugh-on-archinect-sessions-43" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">"In LiDAR We Trust" &ndash; Poking the subconscious of autonomous vehicles with special guest Geoff Manaugh, on Archinect Sessions #43</a></li><li><a title="Tokyo's 2020 Olympics won't have Zaha, but it's looking like there will be &quot;Robot Taxi&quot;" href="http://archinect.com/news/article/140292045/tokyo-s-2020-olympics-won-t-have-zaha-but-it-s-looking-like-there-will-be-robot-taxi" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Tokyo's 2020 Olympics won't have Zaha, but it's looking like there will be "Robot Taxi"</a></li><li><a title="Milton Keynes invests in driverless cars over public transit infrastructure" href="http://archinect.com/news/article/138594315/milton-keynes-invests-in-driverless-cars-over-public-transit-infrastructure" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Milton Keynes invests in driverless cars over public transit infrastructure</a></li></ul> http://archinect.com/news/article/145592812/wired-takes-a-look-inside-tesla-s-car-factory-of-the-future Wired takes a look inside Tesla's car factory of the future Alexander Walter 2016-01-12T18:45:00-05:00 >2016-01-18T21:14:37-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/fa/fafc853e3544302ba02edc7d2ed6581a.jpg" width="514" height="343" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>"Robots hate litter," reads a health and safety sign. "Please don't give them any more reasons to overthrow mankind." It's also fair to say that naming your robots makes the whole process of constructing cars vaguely ridiculous. "Wolverine and Iceman lift the cars to tramline two," our tour guide informs us with the zeal of a true believer, adding, as he did after virtually every sentence, that this is 'kind of amazing'.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Related stories in the Archinect news:</p><ul><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/143515625/multitasking-musk-the-busy-life-of-elon-musk" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Multitasking Musk: the busy life of Elon Musk</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/141435421/a-look-inside-tesla-s-growing-gigafactory-it-will-blow-your-mind" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">A look inside Tesla's growing Gigafactory: "It will blow your mind."</a></li><li><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/139476208/dawn-of-the-self-driving-car-testing-out-tesla-s-autopilot-function" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Dawn of the self-driving car: testing out Tesla's autopilot function</a></li></ul> http://archinect.com/news/article/144970663/new-delhi-mandates-odd-even-car-rationing-to-fight-world-s-worst-air-pollution New Delhi mandates odd-even car rationing to fight world's worst air pollution Alexander Walter 2016-01-04T15:45:00-05:00 >2016-01-05T12:42:01-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/8y/8y6o3n1sgyz2e4s1.jpg" width="514" height="288" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>For the first two weeks of the year, private cars with even-numbered license plates are allowed on the roads only on even-numbered dates, and those with odd-numbered plates on odd dates. The restrictions have noticeably reduced traffic in a city with 9 million cars, more than double that of a decade ago. In 2014, the World Health Organization found New Delhi&rsquo;s air to be the dirtiest of 1,600 cities it studied. Scientists blame the high levels of pollutants [...] for thousands of deaths a year.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Previously:&nbsp;<a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/121124432/delhi-s-air-pollution-is-worse-than-beijing-s-a-new-app-measures-the-air-quality-in-real-time" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Delhi&rsquo;s air pollution is worse than Beijing's. A new app measures the air quality in real time.</a></p> http://archinect.com/news/article/139616789/is-america-actually-shifting-away-from-its-car-obsession-not-entirely Is America actually shifting away from its car obsession? Not entirely. Justine Testado 2015-10-23T18:45:00-04:00 >2015-11-05T11:57:33-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/em/em2barc5boaqw7u0.jpg" width="514" height="340" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>The plateauing and decline in U.S. vehicle miles traveled per capita that occurred between [2005-2014] was described by some hopeful commentators as a dramatic shift that was indicative of the preferences of a new workforce...Marginal changes in the way a new generation behaves...cannot overcome the realities of a country where more than three-fourths of jobs are located more than three miles from downtowns and where only one-fourth of homes are in places that their residents refer to as urban.</p></em><br /><br /><p>More about car transit on Archinect:</p><p><a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/139609547/welcome-to-evanston-illinois-the-carless-suburbia" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Welcome to Evanston, Illinois: the carless suburbia</a></p><p><a title="Dawn of the self-driving car: testing out Tesla's autopilot function" href="http://archinect.com/news/article/139476208/dawn-of-the-self-driving-car-testing-out-tesla-s-autopilot-function" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Dawn of the self-driving car: testing out Tesla's autopilot function</a></p><p><a title="From California to Texas, car culture is losing its monopoly" href="http://archinect.com/news/article/134108329/from-california-to-texas-car-culture-is-losing-its-monopoly" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">From California to Texas, car culture is losing its monopoly</a></p><p><a title="Can a loss of driver autonomy save lives?" href="http://archinect.com/news/article/137951306/can-a-loss-of-driver-autonomy-save-lives" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Can a loss of driver autonomy save lives?</a></p><p><a title="Designers imagine a world of self-driving, mobile offices" href="http://archinect.com/news/article/126364209/designers-imagine-a-world-of-self-driving-mobile-offices" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Designers imagine a world of self-driving, mobile offices</a></p> http://archinect.com/news/article/139609547/welcome-to-evanston-illinois-the-carless-suburbia Welcome to Evanston, Illinois: the carless suburbia Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2015-10-23T16:27:00-04:00 >2015-10-26T10:38:51-04:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/18/18b2b16a2b89f49790c36d99ae449d69.jpg" width="514" height="279" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>What if a suburban downtown became a place where pedestrians ruled and cars were actively discouraged? As it turns out, what looks like normal urban gentrification actually marks the success of one of the most revolutionary suburbs in America. And its approach to development is fast becoming a model across the region&mdash;a model even embraced by [Evanston's] urban neighbor to the south, Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><head><meta></head></html> http://archinect.com/news/article/136883678/apple-and-google-are-poised-to-shake-up-the-auto-industry Apple and Google are poised to shake up the auto industry Nicholas Korody 2015-09-17T14:14:00-04:00 >2015-09-28T21:33:31-04:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/57/57iy7r47uzvgdn31.jpg" width="514" height="343" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>This year, &ldquo;connectivity&rdquo; has supplanted &ldquo;horsepower&rdquo; or &ldquo;torque&rdquo; as the prevailing buzzword in Frankfurt. The talk is of self-driving cars, battery-powered cars, and information technology designed to link cars with data networks to make driving safer and more efficient. Even though neither Apple nor Google is close to mass-producing a vehicle, nervousness about their intentions &mdash; which remain cloaked in mystery &mdash; is understandable.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><head><meta></head></html> http://archinect.com/news/article/126440657/how-urban-cities-continue-to-veer-toward-new-forms-of-mobility How urban cities continue to veer toward new forms of mobility Justine Testado 2015-04-30T09:32:00-04:00 >2015-05-04T22:17:58-04:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/5z/5zpneggcificcvb9.jpg" width="514" height="308" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Gilles Vesco calls it the 'new mobility'. It&rsquo;s a vision of cities in which residents no longer rely on their cars but on public transport, shared cars and bikes and, above all, on real-time data on their smartphones...'Multi-modal' and 'interconnectivity' are now the words on every urban planner&rsquo;s lips...This model of denser, less car-dependent cities is becoming the accepted wisdom across the developed world.</p></em><br /><br /><p>Writer Stephen Moss talks to urban planners and transportation authorities around Europe to get a glimpse into how cities worldwide continue to wean themselves off car dependency and explore new forms of mobility, all while city density increases.</p> http://archinect.com/news/article/105939750/uberpool-you-can-now-carpool-and-split-fares-with-uber UberPool: you can now carpool and split fares with Uber Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-08-06T13:36:00-04:00 >2014-08-06T18:41:41-04:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/97/97ada1b6904a5c6be7cd8771db13f181.jpg" width="514" height="290" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Today, Uber is announcing UberPool, a new feature that will let&nbsp;you pick up other riders on the way to your destination and split the bill. While the feature should do a lot to cut costs for passengers, not everyone will want to ride with a stranger in addition to the driver picking them up; Uber notes that the new feature also serves as a kind of &ldquo;social experiment.&rdquo; [...] Starting August 15 a public beta will launch in the San Francisco Bay Area.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><head><meta></head></html> http://archinect.com/news/article/102098978/more-roads-won-t-ease-traffic-but-charging-drivers-more-at-peak-hours-will More roads won't ease traffic, but charging drivers more at peak hours will Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-06-17T15:40:00-04:00 >2014-06-23T22:12:53-04:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/cb/cbe811ea1402a542ee50b8a0cd9b0160.jpg" width="514" height="343" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>You can&rsquo;t build your way out of congestion. It&rsquo;s the roads themselves that cause traffic. The concept is called induced demand, which is economist-speak for when increasing the supply of something (like roads) makes people want that thing even more. [...] What [economists] Turner and Duranton (and many others who&rsquo;d like to see more rational transportation policy) actually advocate is known as congestion pricing. This means raising the price of driving on a road when demand is high.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><head><meta></head></html> http://archinect.com/news/article/101704684/the-case-for-tearing-down-park-and-ride-lots The Case for Tearing Down Park-and-Ride Lots Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-06-12T13:02:00-04:00 >2014-06-17T17:43:37-04:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/aa/aa2c796faf07dfbc5c23feeb7f5c5364.jpg" width="514" height="343" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>The wisdom of surrounding transit stations with "seas" of park-and-ride lots may be turning. In theory, park-and-ride seems like a great transportation compromise, converting full-trip drivers into part-trip riders. In practice, the opposite often occurs, with former non-drivers now commuting part of the way by car. That unexpected practical shift can increase vehicle miles traveled in a metro area, subverting the sustainability goal of transit.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><head><meta></head></html> http://archinect.com/news/article/101475551/car-ownership-may-combat-poverty-better-than-mass-transit-studies-suggest Car ownership may combat poverty better than mass transit, studies suggest Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-06-09T14:17:00-04:00 >2014-06-17T18:58:34-04:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/cs/csmzu4smeyqia1cl.jpg" width="514" height="321" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Cars offer more than just convenience: they can give lower income Americans an economic leg up. [...] While tracking households that had participated in two federal housing voucher programs, [a study] found that car owners were twice as likely as transit users to find jobs and four times likelier to retain them. Car-owning households were also able to locate near better neighborhoods and schools. This reaffirmed previous work ... arguing that car ownership plants the seeds for upward mobility.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><head><meta></head></html> http://archinect.com/news/article/101246166/watch-los-angeles-s-road-network-grow-from-1888-to-2010 Watch Los Angeles's Road Network Grow, From 1888 to 2010 Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-06-06T14:15:00-04:00 >2014-06-10T19:27:44-04:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/5k/5kchg45eu1qzbx7g.jpg" width="514" height="386" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>A new video by doctoral student and an associate professor at Arizona State University visualizes the expansion of LA's roads, starting in 1888 and running all the way up to 2010 [...] Variations in color denote the age of the thoroughfares, with green being the oldest roads and red being newest. Watch as the map blooms with color in the fifties and the trend carries on through the eighties to the present.</p></em><br /><br /><p>"Growth of the Los Angeles Roadway Infrastructure, 1888 - &nbsp;2010", by Andrew M. Fraser and Mikhail V. Chester, Ph.D., of Arizona State University:</p><p></p><p>Compare with the following video of Los Angeles' overall growth as a city during the 20th century, from NYU's <a href="http://urbanizationproject.org/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Stern Urbanization Project</a>:</p><p></p> http://archinect.com/news/article/91832887/protected-bike-lanes-strengthen-city-economy-report-finds Protected bike lanes strengthen city economy, report finds Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-01-22T13:07:00-05:00 >2014-01-27T21:46:07-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/2u/2u6j4iqlx5mp18aj.jpg" width="514" height="672" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p> According to a recent <a href="http://b.3cdn.net/bikes/123e6305136c85cf56_0tm6vjeuo.pdf" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">report</a> from <a href="http://www.peopleforbikes.org/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">PeopleForBikes</a> and <a href="http://www.peoplepoweredmovement.org/site/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Alliance for Biking &amp; Walking</a>, protected city bike lanes can actually encourage local business success. As trends show workers moving into U.S. cities (rather than out into suburbs), and businesses catering to a younger workforce that relies less on cars, cycling infrastructure has becomes integral to strengthening local businesses and encouraging long-term economic growth for the entire city.</p> <p> A lot of what delays cycling infrastructure is the presumption that it only benefits cyclists. It can be hard to justify to citizens who don't cycle that bike lanes and bike-share programs will benefit the city at large, and not just the "cyclist" demographic. But cities have begun to take notice of the positive change that cycling infrastructure can help bring to their local businesses, in very concrete ways.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/o7/o7e3k4sw259uvss0.jpg" title=""></p> <p> The report focuses on statistics from cities with expanding networks of protected bike lanes: Austin, TX; San Francisco, CA;...</p> http://archinect.com/news/article/89832860/in-los-angeles-walking-illegally-is-more-than-twice-as-expensive-as-parking-illegally In Los Angeles, walking illegally is more than twice as expensive as parking illegally Archinect 2013-12-27T14:00:00-05:00 >2014-01-01T13:05:45-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/bf/bfeffbcb7c08e9e68e03c58d3dfa56dc.jpg" width="514" height="289" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>The city of Los Angeles is cracking down on pedestrians who sneak across streets when the traffic signal says &ldquo;don&rsquo;t walk.&rdquo; But when you put a price on bad behavior, like being in a public street illegally, you see clearly what a city values. The cheapest parking ticket in Los Angeles (pdf) is $58, and the one most commonly issued for parking in a prohibited zone is $73. Jaywalking&mdash;the term of art for a pedestrian crossing against the light&mdash;will cost you $197.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><head><meta></head></html> http://archinect.com/news/article/41530626/if-you-care-about-cities-return-that-new-ipad If you care about cities, return that new iPad Paul Petrunia 2012-03-15T17:20:00-04:00 >2012-10-11T17:20:12-04:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/dn/dnd4dyxybbhdital.jpg" width="514" height="212" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>Apple is actually taking a site that is now parking lots and low-rise boxes and making it worse for the community. Yes, it will be iconic, assuming you think a building shaped like a whitewall motorcycle tire is iconic, but it will reduce current street connectivity, seal off potential walking routes and, as I wrote some time back, essentially turn its back on its community. With a parking garage designed to hold over ten thousand cars, by the way.</p></em><br /><br /><p> Kaid Benfield, staff member at the Natural Resources Defense Council, slams Apple on it's proposed new HQ in Cupertino.</p> <p> Before you run off to return your idevices, though, consider that the new Archinect iPhone app will be released shortly ;)</p> <p> Related:</p> <ul><li> <a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/20294409/apple-s-new-headquarters-lacks-vision" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Apple's new headquarters lacks vision</a></li> <li> <a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/16953790/plans-for-new-apple-hq-by-norman-foster-officially-released" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Plans for new Apple HQ, by Norman Foster, officially released</a></li> <li> <a href="http://archinect.com/news/article/9207045/steve-jobs-proposes-spaceship-shaped-cupertino-campus" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">Steve Jobs Proposes Spaceship-Shaped Cupertino Campus</a><br> &nbsp;</li> </ul> http://archinect.com/news/article/33568308/taking-parking-lots-seriously-as-public-spaces Taking Parking Lots Seriously, as Public Spaces Archinect 2012-01-06T14:19:00-05:00 >2012-01-06T20:11:35-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/06/066e825407e90b45b3fa49b503cfebcd.jpg" width="514" height="300" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>One study says we&rsquo;ve built eight parking spots for every car in the country. Houston is said to have 30 of them per resident. In &ldquo;Rethinking a Lot,&rdquo; a new study of parking, due out in March, Eran Ben-Joseph, a professor of urban planning at M.I.T., points out that &ldquo;in some U.S. cities, parking lots cover more than a third of the land area, becoming the single most salient landscape feature of our built environment.&rdquo;</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><head><meta></head></html> http://archinect.com/news/article/6217217/architect-as-auto-designer-le-corbusier-s-minimum-car Architect as Auto Designer: Le Corbusier's Minimum Car Paul Petrunia 2011-05-13T14:38:26-04:00 >2011-05-13T14:39:58-04:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/45/45476226c07f030411f71a528302b388.jpg" width="190" height="193" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>&ldquo;Voiture Minimum: Le Corbusier and the Automobile&rdquo; ($49.95) focuses on Le Corbusier&rsquo;s design for a &ldquo;minimum car,&rdquo; a two-seat, bare-bones people mover with a sheer, angled front. His design existed only in drawings during his lifetime, but became probably the most famous of all automobile designs contributed by architects.</p></em><br /><br /><!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><head><meta></head></html> http://archinect.com/news/article/3724872/big-is-dreamin-big-with-auto-piloted-cars BIG is dreamin' big with auto-piloted cars J. James R. 2011-04-21T23:01:00-04:00 >2012-09-19T19:41:06-04:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/q7/q7q6maxcewate536.jpg" width="514" height="289" border="0" title="" alt="" /><em><p>"It's a bug," Google CEO Eric Schmidt said, "that cars were invented before computers." So Ingels reimagines city streets and highways crowded with tight-packed, auto-piloted cars, taking up one-quarter of the road space and allowing for precision guidance alongside people and other vehicles -- all of which would together reboot the city's streets as vibrant public spaces. A smart transport grid, in essence, in parallel with the rise of smart energy grids.</p></em><br /><br /><p> In BIG's competition, entry for Audi's AUDI Urban Future Award, they call for a future city where driverless cars give the streets more plasticity by removing the need for barriers and other concrete-like features by utilizing the relatively new concept of swarm theory. Objects, from people to trees to other cars, interact with one another to relay the best possible path.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="http://farm6.static.flickr.com/5028/5641829979_f3c9633ba1_b.jpg"></p> <p> BIG hypothesizes that speed increases the necessary surface area a car occupies and remedying that with cars precisely controlled in compact clusters. It also addresses the possibility of eliminating many of the traffic control devices such as stoplights and interchanges as traffic can be instantly reorganized to flow through intersections without stopping.</p> <p> <img alt="" src="http://farm6.static.flickr.com/5310/5641830003_b4b70c0e03_b.jpg"></p> <p> In addition to traffic control and the reduction of fatalities cause by automobiles, BIG points out that a big accommodation made by the public with regards to automobiles is the widening of roadways to lessen the burden faced by noise pollution. Bus...</p>