Archinect - Features 2015-01-26T22:38:56-05:00 http://archinect.com/features/article/117986587/the-state-of-debt-and-the-price-of-architecture-2 The State of Debt and the Price of Architecture #2 Nicholas Korody 2015-01-16T09:45:00-05:00 >2015-01-26T11:27:48-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/og/ogq4w80cal6v1khe.jpg" width="514" height="327" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Do you know anyone who is not a debtor, at least in some sense? The idea is practically unthinkable. To participate in modern life, one must take on debt: credit cards, housing loans, medical bills, education. Even cash is a form of debt, albeit normalized to the point that we no longer think of it as such. <em>State of Debt and the Price of Architecture </em>is a series that attempts to consider the particular situation of architecture student debt within a larger cultural and historical framework: to show just how strange (and untenable) the normal actually is.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/117976955/white-space-the-architecture-of-the-art-fair White Space: The Architecture of the Art Fair Nicholas Korody 2015-01-13T09:30:00-05:00 >2015-01-21T21:30:30-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/e3/e3ln3ixgs4a3xku9.jpg" width="514" height="333" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>In his 1942 short story &ldquo;<a href="http://hyperdiscordia.crywalt.com/library_of_babel.html" target="_blank">The Library of Babel</a>,&rdquo; Jorge Luis Borges describes a universe consisting of a potentially infinite library of adjacent hexagonal rooms. Convinced that the library contains every imaginable ordering of twenty-five orthographic symbols, the inhabitants of this universe search incessantly, and futilely, for meaning amid the endless shelves. While an individual art fair is never actually infinite, its labyrinthine rows of cubicles can appear endless.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/117968112/upstarts-four-o-nine-architecture-and-design UpStarts: Four O Nine architecture and design Julia Ingalls 2015-01-12T09:30:00-05:00 >2015-01-21T20:48:03-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/de/defyr5i1bhvqzqoa.jpg" width="514" height="514" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>In a country infamous for its one time zone and countless architectural knock-offs, Four O Nine's success is startling and original.&nbsp;</p><p><em><a href="http://archinect.com/features/tag/11336/upstarts" target="_blank"><strong>UpStarts</strong></a>&nbsp;is a series of features on the foundations of contemporary practice. It will have a global reach in which practices from Europe, North America, Asia, and beyond will be asked to address the work behind getting the work, and the effect of cultural contexts. The focus will be on how a practice is initiated and maintained. In many ways, the critical years of a fledgling design partnership is within the initial five years, after the haze and daze of getting it off the ground.&nbsp;<strong><a href="http://archinect.com/features/tag/11336/upstarts" target="_blank">UpStarts</a></strong>&nbsp;surveys the first years of practice as a tool for tracking the tactics of the rapidly evolving methods for sustaining a practice.</em></p> http://archinect.com/features/article/117673239/showcase-a-house-by-wiel-arets-architects Showcase: A’ House by Wiel Arets Architects Alexander Walter 2015-01-05T22:58:00-05:00 >2015-01-12T09:23:52-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/nt/ntm5o40221x17n08.jpg" width="514" height="771" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Wedged between the narrow alleys and razor-sharp property lines of Tokyo's Nishi-Azabu neighborhood, A' House fits in its dense context like a shiny puzzle piece. Bold yet familiar, expansive yet compact, transparent yet opaque, open to dialogue yet impenetrable like an oyster shell.</p><p>Designed by&nbsp;Wiel Arets Architects, the building's innovative system of immense sliding windows responds to varying desires for privacy, air flow, light intake and participation in the neighborhood's social life.</p><p>Turns out, where Dutch and Japanese practicality intersect, one might discover <em>concrete </em>poetry<strong>.</strong></p> http://archinect.com/features/article/117442925/showcase-bidos-technological-park-main-building-by-jorge-mealha Showcase: Óbidos Technological Park Main Building by Jorge Mealha Alexander Walter 2015-01-03T09:00:00-05:00 >2015-01-08T10:53:42-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/6u/6ugmxmvjy41xxj0c.jpg" width="514" height="386" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>How does one create a main piazza in the absence of a surrounding urban fabric that typically encloses a <em>Piazza</em>? The design team around architect Jorge Mealha drew from its traditional Portuguese typologies and conceived the &Oacute;bidos Technological Park Main Building in the countryside north of Lisbon as contemporary interpretation of a <em>Terreiro</em>.</p><p>While just recently completed, the project has already garnered a respectable nomination for the&nbsp;European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture &ndash; Mies van der Rohe Award 2015.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/117185429/student-works-cellular-tessellation-pavilion-lights-the-way-in-sydney Student Works: Cellular Tessellation pavilion lights the way in Sydney Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-12-30T13:15:00-05:00 >2015-01-05T12:38:41-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/wc/wc1muuune32nc8wu.jpg" width="514" height="343" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Part of an 18-day arts festival in Sydney, Australia, the Vivid Lights pavilion explores the pedestrian dynamic in touch and light. A collaborative research effort led by the Abedian School of Architecture at Bond University, the Vivid pavilion <a href="http://archinect.com/features/tag/557/student-works" target="_blank"><strong>Student Works</strong></a> puts a human scaled experience in conversation with local architectural icons.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/116348258/student-works-townization-a-new-chinese-urbanization-paradigm-from-the-gsd Student Works: "Townization", a new Chinese urbanization paradigm from the GSD Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-12-26T10:43:00-05:00 >2014-12-30T21:33:00-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/wg/wggh48rrvecsxgbn.jpg" width="514" height="514" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>It would be something of an understatement to say the last thirty years of urbanization in China have been rough. Rapid and often unsustainable growth made newly transitioned cities difficult to maintain and economically fraught, burdened by their own heft. So when the Chinese government revised its strategy in 2013, it focused on more subtle and adaptive goals. Dingliang Yang, an urban planning student at the GSD, has a plan to make sure that happens.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/116360307/working-out-of-the-box-production-designer-and-art-director-colin-sieburgh Working out of the Box: Production Designer and Art Director, Colin Sieburgh Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-12-23T11:29:00-05:00 >2015-01-02T15:23:33-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/3t/3tchwqiixeyhu09b.jpg" width="514" height="473" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p><strong><a href="http://archinect.com/features/tag/1149/working-out-of-the-box" target="_blank">Working out of the Box</a>&nbsp;</strong>is a series of features presenting architects who have applied their architecture backgrounds to alternative career paths.</p><p>In this installment, we're talking with production designer and art direcor,<strong>&nbsp;<a href="http://www.seeess.com/" target="_blank">Colin Sieburgh</a></strong>.</p><p><em>Are you an architect working out of the box? Do you know of someone that has changed careers and has an interesting story to share? If you would like to suggest an (ex-)architect,&nbsp;<a href="http://archinect.com/contact_us" target="_blank">please send us a message</a>.</em></p> http://archinect.com/features/article/116280877/the-age-of-the-plastic-chimney-how-cookie-cutter-homes-drove-me-to-despair-and-away-from-the-profession The Age Of The Plastic Chimney: How Cookie-Cutter Homes Drove Me to Despair… And Away from the Profession Paul Keskeys 2014-12-19T10:28:00-05:00 >2015-01-02T15:23:56-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/j1/j1hxvbgxudevznyr.jpg" width="514" height="386" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>A UK architect berates the state of residential development across The Pond, and asks the question: How can we rock the status quo?</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/115813747/screen-print-27-future-anterior-a-champion-of-historic-preservation Screen/Print #27: "Future Anterior", a champion of historic preservation Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-12-17T10:11:00-05:00 >2015-01-01T21:33:10-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/r2/r2iyte7eoydjr6nz.jpg" width="514" height="766" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>If the job&rsquo;s done right, the architecture will outlast the architect. But when building for the present and unknowable future, the past is the only reliable hint at what may come next. <a href="http://www.arch.columbia.edu/programs/historic-preservation/future-anterior" target="_blank"><strong><em>Future Anterior</em></strong></a> is here towards that end, to critique and analyze architectural historic preservation.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/116056065/deans-list-david-mohney-of-the-kean-university-s-michael-graves-school-of-architecture Deans List: David Mohney of the Kean University's Michael Graves School of Architecture Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-12-16T10:16:00-05:00 >2014-12-18T18:46:21-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/yd/yde51azmxk58vaxv.jpg" width="514" height="345" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>The&nbsp;<a href="http://archinect.com/features/tag/378110/deans-list" target="_blank"><strong>Deans List</strong></a>&nbsp;is an interview series with the leaders of architecture schools, worldwide. The series profiles the school&rsquo;s programming, as defined by the head honcho &ndash; giving an invaluable perspective into the institution&rsquo;s unique curriculum, faculty and academic environment.</p><p>For this issue, we spoke with&nbsp;<strong>David Mohney</strong>, the Acting Dean at <a href="http://archinect.com/schools/cover/3572250/kean-university" target="_blank">Kean University</a>'s upcoming Michael Graves School of Architecture.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/115672428/showcase-groenl-ndia-by-triptyque Showcase: "Groenlândia" by TRIPTYQUE Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-12-11T15:13:00-05:00 >2014-12-18T19:11:58-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/qo/qof4gkiibhzpsdha.jpg" width="514" height="685" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>A gentle giant of marble, glass and concrete, this stately commercial space makes an impact without imposing on the street.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/115598578/working-out-of-the-box-santiago-borja Working out of the Box: Santiago Borja Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-12-11T10:37:00-05:00 >2015-01-01T21:30:49-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/au/aut7nd74nkcbx8f6.jpg" width="514" height="342" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p><strong><a href="http://archinect.com/features/tag/1149/working-out-of-the-box" target="_blank">Working out of the Box</a>&nbsp;</strong>is a series of features presenting architects who have applied their architecture backgrounds to alternative career paths.</p><p>In this installment, we're talking with artist and architecture theorist, <a href="http://www.s-borja.com/" target="_blank"><strong>Santiago Borja</strong></a>.</p><p><em>Are you an architect working out of the box? Do you know of someone that has changed careers and has an interesting story to share? If you would like to suggest an (ex-)architect,&nbsp;<a href="http://archinect.com/contact_us" target="_blank">please send us a message</a>.</em></p> http://archinect.com/features/article/115273546/upstarts-paul-michael-davis-design UpStarts: Paul Michael Davis Design Julia Ingalls 2014-12-08T16:07:00-05:00 >2014-12-15T02:11:50-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/uq/uql0gwn0okw38qe6.jpg" width="514" height="397" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>When it comes to sustainable design, it seems like most firms skew either green but boring, or exciting but radically inefficient. <a href="http://archinect.com/paulmichaeldavis" target="_blank"><strong>Paul Michael Davis Design</strong></a> in Seattle, WA handily straddles this schism, creating visually compelling, sustainable designs at an affordable cost. Founded in 2009, in the midst of a recession which pushed many newly minted graduates out of the profession, PMDD has since expanded to include an associate and an intern, and occasionally collaborates with independent firms. Notably, PMDD is developing several low-cost prefab housing projects that look like places you'd actually want to live in.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/115281577/showcase-antoine-de-st-exupe-ry-home-for-dependent-elderly-people-by-naud-poux-architectes Showcase: Antoine de St exupéry home for dependent elderly people, by Naud & Poux Architectes Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-12-08T00:16:00-05:00 >2014-12-09T21:36:58-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/z7/z705caayffxcbrh0.jpg" width="514" height="370" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>In the complex and fraught world of elder care, architecture can seem indifferent, dictated primarily by medical and physical concerns. Not so with Naud &amp; Poux Architectes' facility in Villejuif, France, whose solid and distinctive design accommodates the needs of dependent elderly people, while looking more like a home than a hospital.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/115115397/material-witness-finale-what-apocalypse-is-made-of Material Witness Finale: What Apocalypse Is Made Of Julia Ingalls 2014-12-04T17:27:00-05:00 >2014-12-10T21:08:39-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/if/ifmvgsruxp7yg2y7.jpg" width="514" height="287" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Western civilization has never been particularly adept at dealing with death, which is perhaps why its own eventual collapse is such a source of cinematic fascination.&nbsp;</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/114913845/op-ed-if-architecture-were-optimism-a-response-to-michael-kimmelman-s-critique-of-1-wtc Op-Ed: If Architecture Were Optimism; A Response to Michael Kimmelman's Critique of 1 WTC Beth Mosenthal 2014-12-01T11:38:00-05:00 >2014-12-05T22:49:46-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/ws/wsmpfve43nudtf07.jpg" width="514" height="333" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>In the last year or so, reading or watching the news has become a game of roulette. Taking my chances, I scan pages or flip channels hastily in an attempt to avoid disturbing imagery and narrative in favor of landing on something meaningful and at least slightly optimistic.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/114207240/home-is-where-the-art-is-contemporary-artists-and-the-modern-house Home is where the art is: Contemporary Artists and the Modern House Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-11-26T15:18:00-05:00 >2014-12-06T10:03:53-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/3b/3beybfx7avfcs444.jpg" width="514" height="343" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Hosting new art in old homes can make for some strange bedfellows.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/114504045/showcase-sparrenburg-visitor-center-by-max-dudler Showcase: Sparrenburg Visitor Center by Max Dudler Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-11-26T12:41:00-05:00 >2014-12-03T20:09:59-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/zu/zu91hv9752dp8lim.jpg" width="514" height="321" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p><a href="http://archinect.com/firms/cover/62945049/max-dudler" target="_blank">Max Dudler</a>'s brutalist beauty falls serenely in line with Sparrenburg Fortress's 800-year history in Bielefeld, Germany.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/114117296/architecture-of-the-anthropocene-pt-2-haunted-houses-living-buildings-and-other-horror-stories Architecture of the Anthropocene, Pt. 2: Haunted Houses, Living Buildings, and Other Horror Stories Nicholas Korody 2014-11-25T10:09:00-05:00 >2015-01-23T18:17:35-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/4a/4azi5755o8tf4sbi.jpg" width="514" height="317" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>In horror fiction, a house is usually haunted in one of two ways: either a building is inhabited by the ghosts of dead humans, or the structure itself is animated by a strange, non-human life. Edgar Allen Poe&rsquo;s short story &ldquo;<a href="http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/932" target="_blank">The Fall of the House of Usher</a>,&rdquo; an influential achievement of the genre, falls into the latter camp; the horror of the House of Usher can never be properly pinned down because it pervades the setting itself. But what&rsquo;s so scary about a living building?</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/113965543/invasion-a-first-hand-view-of-gentrification-in-san-francisco Invasion: A First-Hand View of Gentrification in San Francisco Paul Keskeys 2014-11-24T10:13:00-05:00 >2014-12-02T12:12:47-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/fb/fbvxnf9velv8mij6.jpg" width="514" height="343" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>A recent Bay Area transplant sees old and new duke it out over the Bay Area's shifting public-private fault line.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/114130154/art-architecture-refik-anadol-at-walt-disney-concert-hall Art + Architecture: Refik Anadol at Walt Disney Concert Hall Nicholas Korody 2014-11-21T18:16:00-05:00 >2014-11-25T21:47:54-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/xe/xelb3fbkyiq3sok2.jpg" width="514" height="343" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>The billowing wood panels of the concert hall imploded before my eyes, as if physically ripped apart by the thundering crescendos of&nbsp;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgard_Var%C3%A8se" target="_blank">Edgard Var&egrave;se</a>&rsquo;s <em>Am&eacute;riques. </em>One moment the massive organ was radically disfigured to the point of unrecognizability; the next, its forms re-emerged beneath the luminous, moving mesh mapped onto the structure by the artist Refik Anadol. For less than a half hour, the Walt Disney Concert Hall was transformed in an exhilarating synthesis of architecture, music and digital art: the first iteration of <a href="http://www.laphil.com/insight" target="_blank"><em>in/SIGHT</em></a>, a series of ongoing collaborations between video artists and the Los Angeles Philharmonic.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/113594682/jimenez-lai-storyteller-by-design Jimenez Lai: Storyteller by Design Julia Ingalls 2014-11-17T12:39:00-05:00 >2014-11-22T00:32:39-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/s0/s0jzbn6oy2eognyf.jpg" width="514" height="343" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>For many, "experimental" is the kindly euphemism for "unrealized crap." In conceptual fields like architecture, it's easy to call up dozens of flashy-looking, ultimately failed experiments disguised as ideas. This is why <a href="http://archinect.com/firms/cover/90423/bureau-spectacular-jimenez-lai" target="_blank">Jimenez Lai</a> is arguably one of the most remarkable people currently working in architecture. His ideas are experimental, but they're also realized; in other words, he's pioneering farsighted concepts that have a direct application to reality, but don't bore you to tears with footnotes and clich&eacute;d allusions to Italo Calvino.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/113594683/showcase-garden-school-beijing-no-4-high-school-fangshan-campus-by-open-architecture Showcase: Garden School / Beijing No.4 High School Fangshan Campus by OPEN Architecture Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-11-14T19:41:00-05:00 >2015-01-26T05:40:53-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/2m/2mp55s4kkcfv2j2r.jpg" width="514" height="341" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Taking cues from the urban and pastoral, Beijing No. 4 High School (aka Garden School) strives not only to model elite Chinese public education, but also to also drive development in its relatively new town of Fangshan.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/112809997/working-out-of-the-box-greg-henderson-of-hendo-hoverboards Working out of the Box: Greg Henderson of Hendo Hoverboards Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-11-11T13:54:00-05:00 >2014-11-17T22:08:51-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/gb/gbq65ameo573t7nk.jpg" width="514" height="289" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p><a href="http://archinect.com/features/tag/1149/working-out-of-the-box" target="_blank"><strong>Working out of the Box&nbsp;</strong></a>is a series of features presenting architects who have applied their architecture backgrounds to alternative career paths.</p><p>In this installment, we're talking with <a href="http://hendohover.com/#/" target="_blank">Hendo Hoverboard</a> inventor and co-founder of <a href="http://www.arxpax.com/#/" target="_blank">Arx Pax</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://www.arxpax.com/#/" target="_blank"><strong>G<strong>reg Henderson</strong></strong></a>.</p><p><em>Are you an architect working out of the box? Do you know of someone that has changed careers and has an interesting story to share? If you would like to suggest an (ex-)architect,&nbsp;<a href="http://archinect.com/contact_us" target="_blank">please send us a message</a>.</em></p> http://archinect.com/features/article/113051065/the-wandering-architect-one-student-s-lessons-learned-from-working-abroad The Wandering Architect: One Student’s Lessons Learned from Working Abroad Paul Keskeys 2014-11-07T11:10:00-05:00 >2014-11-12T13:17:22-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/i6/i64qtj4m4ifk66o1.jpg" width="514" height="257" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Many people possess itchy feet, but surely none more so than my 21-year-old self, an aspiring architect from the UK with a perpetual hankering for travel and exploration. The combination of a na&iuml;ve but inquisitive mind, and a growing appreciation for urban environments different from my own, meant that when I reached my interning year I was open to anything &ndash; at home or abroad.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/113038199/showcase-slate-house-by-affleck-de-la-riva-architects Showcase: Slate House by Affleck de la Riva architects Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-11-06T20:27:00-05:00 >2014-11-11T20:53:30-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/zk/zkh0wytdujs02o3j.jpg" width="514" height="340" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>Suburbia doesn't have to be faceless. Slate House, a proud black sheep in a family of tract houses, manages a demurely chic presence amid the former farmlands of Laval, Montreal's largest suburb.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/112897593/view-from-above-acadia-conference-2014-in-a-nutshell View from above: ACADIA Conference 2014 in a nutshell Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-11-05T12:14:00-05:00 >2014-11-11T20:44:29-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/n6/n6hjteisy5g4ycpd.jpg" width="514" height="343" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>At thirty-three years old and counting, the <a href="http://acadia.org/" target="_blank">Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture</a> has seen a lot of changes in the field of digital design. Its annual conference is a time to step back and reflect, and particular to this year's conference, consider the power computers have over architects' work.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/112824468/the-theory-of-everything-in-sandbox-city-will-wright-s-keynote-at-acadia-2014 The theory of everything in sandbox city: Will Wright's keynote at ACADIA 2014 Amelia Taylor-Hochberg 2014-11-04T12:25:00-05:00 >2014-11-13T13:57:17-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/0g/0g4iys9q0unlop2t.jpg" width="514" height="386" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>How the creator of SimCity turns reality into playground.</p> http://archinect.com/features/article/112570077/did-you-see-it-wait-now-it-s-gone-casey-reas-generative-art-at-acadia-2014 Did You See It? Wait, Now It's Gone: Casey Reas' Generative Art at ACADIA 2014 Anthony Morey 2014-11-03T12:16:00-05:00 >2014-11-07T21:32:48-05:00 <img src="http://cdn.archinect.net/images/514x/sp/sph3xhb2ux2uxnnd.jpg" width="514" height="343" border="0" title="" alt="" /><p>ACADIA 2014 was labeled as a conference focused on Architectural Design Agency and Authorship, yet of course it seemed only fitting that it would close out with a keynote by Casey Reas. Art, the word that an architect cringes at. A word that can resonate more as a critique than a compliment. One that signifies the ripping from architectural ideals, even if such ideals are still up for debate.</p>